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Sep 23 67 mins Pro Poker Player Brad Wilson dives deep with World Class Cash Game Players (No limit hold'em, Pot Limit Omaha, and Mixed Games). In the s the venue also hosted coursing (a type of dog racing The founders of both companies were immigrants Octavius Beale an Irish Quaker who. The National Coursing Association around this time bought property on the Betting: advice for remote, non-remote and betting intermediaries Advice note. QUOTAZIONE ETHEREUM
Both companies were officially deregistered on 25 March, Schinnerling in after a couple of hiccups over the sharing of commission also operated totalizators at the Mowbray Launceston course operated by the Tasmania Turf Club and other tracks in Tasmania including Deloraine, Beaconsfield, Bishopsbourne and Westbury. There is also a fleeting reference to Schinnerling's totalizator being worked on the Colac course by a Mr.
Elkington in March, , the turnover Schinnerling was later charged in Colac Court over the use of the machine; it was noted he did not appear as he was in Tasmania erecting a totalizator for the Tasmanian Racing Club. His defence reminded the Bench that the totalisator had been legalised in Tasmania, and it would probably be legalised in Victoria shortly.
Schinnerling pleaded guilty to the charge after the prosecutor suggested he would not press for a heavy penalty and a nominal fine of ten shillings was imposed. Despite his apparent success with the totalizator, Schinnerling's creative talents continued with a string of inventions - in the early s, he at one stage patented a device he called "the new amalgamator" to recover the fine gold going to waste in alluvial sludge and quartz tailings and later purchased leases of at least two abandoned gold mines around Bendigo with the intention of reworking the leftover tailings.
He also in won some fame when he collected a prize from the Victorian Government for a revolutionary potato-digging machine which was claimed to harvest the humble spud ten times faster than by hand. There are several references linking Schinnerling with James Hill of the Bell Foundry; more correctly the Birmingham Brass and Bell Foundry and at the time the original South Australian patent was granted located on the north side of Bourke Street just west of King Street.
Although the relationship between the two men was never specifically mentioned, it appears Hill was the manufacturer of Schinnerling's totalizators, although for how long is problematical with Schinnerling failing in an appeal to the Supreme Court in December, against the Attorney- General's decision to grant him a patent for an automatic cask-tilter, James Hill being the objector to the patent being granted Although the relevance to any of his inventions is not clear, Schinnerling consistently advertised in New Zealand's West Coast Times for high quality greenstone during the early s.
His wife, Wilhelmina, born in Saxony which was then part of the German Confederation, pre-deceased him by three years The Totalizator on Victorian Courses From what can be traced, the first instance of a totalizator being used in Victoria came on 14 June, at Kensington Park, a prominent "proprietary" track owned by William Samuel Cox, some four years later to develop an alternative course at nearby Moonee Valley on land purchased from John F. It was never revealed just who the entrepreneurial organiser of the tote was - Cox himself later became a vehement opponent of the system and was partially responsible for causing one of the most promising attempts at introducing the totalizator to fail.
There is a fleeting mention in the Camperdown Chronicle of a totalizator at the traditional Warrnambool meeting on 18 June, where it was suggested it was "one of the principal attractions on the course". Flemington racecourse Circa The "machine" re-appeared at a Flemington meeting on 1 July and at Caulfield on 9 August where The Herald noted that its use was discontinued after two races at the request of the police, but it appears to have been the following meeting where the totalizator had its first real impact.
A rough machine, on the totalisator principle, has been worked on the flat at Caulfield and Kensington during the last two or three meetings, the tickets being 5s; but the machine on Saturday was a properly constituted one". Those who did get there were asked from all parts of the crowd to obtain tickets for the less fortunate ones". One instance may be mentioned. In one of the flat races, Waxy ran second.
There was on the totalisator, and only four persons backed Waxy. The odds were therefore nearly 70 to 1 against him, while from the ring only from 6 to 7 to 1 could be had. The manner in which the public rushed the machine showed how popular it was and how much it was appreciated by persons who confine their bets on a race to a pound or two".
There can be very little doubt but that public opinion will cause the totalisator to be recognised. It will then be for each club either to use the machine itself and so add to its profits, or to see that some trustworthy official is appointed to ensure that it is properly and fairly worked. The Herald, 18 August, The involvement of Captain Frederick Charles Standish was perhaps ironic; he was Chief of Police at the time, but according to his Australian Dictionary of Biography entry, "no backer of horses was better known or more liked upon English racecourses" before he migrated to Victoria in "The use of the totalisator upon the Flemington race-course seems equally as objectionable to the Commissioner of Police of Victoria as it is to the bookmakers with whom the gallant captain does much business".
Brisbane Courier Mail, 24 November, He was Chairman of the Committee of the Victoria Racing Club from until his death in March, and the prestigious Standish Handicap down the straight at Flemington still commemorates his name. Despite the intervention of the police, no charges were laid although there was a prominent legal battle over a totalizator being used purely for a sweepstake where punters had no input as to what they were actually backing , but it appears to have put a temporary end to totalizator operations in Melbourne.
Probably at Standish's behest, the Police Gazette of September, issued instructions to police to suppress the use of totalizators, but late in October, an application was made to the V. The committee declared themselves in favour of its introduction, but decided that as Crown Law officers were opposed to it, they could not justify their agreement for its use. Standish stated outright that he would arrest anyone conducting a tote, and when asked if he would agree to proceed on summons after the meeting if proceeds were for the benefit of the Melbourne Hospital, he refused to compromise, despite it being pointed out to him "scores of sweeps were advertised in the papers to take place on Cup Day".
The illegality of the use of the totalizator on racecourses was subsequently proclaimed in the Government Gazette, bringing forth several angry letters to the press suggesting that if it was illegal, then so was the open betting allowed in public places, especially at Flemington "under the eyes of the V.
C Secretary, V. Robert Cooper Bagot was the first secretary of the Victoria Racing Club, which had been formed on to take over and combine the affairs of the ill-managed and bankrupt Victoria Turf Club and the Victoria Jockey Club - he remained secretary until his death in and one of the major lead-up races to the Melbourne Cup still carries his name.
The totalizator in use at Morphettville was, in fact, one of August Schinnerling's earliest designs. The patent in South Australia "and adjoining colonies" was issued to Hill and Schinnerling of Melbourne; Messrs Hill and Company of the Bell Foundry, the manufacturers of the equipment.
Australia's first legal mechanised tote appears to have operated for the first time at the S. C's Christmas meeting on 27 December, with four windows, each of which capable of handling up to 40 starters but with a rather weird and wonderful method of assigning numbers to the starters. The totalizator took 5 per cent, equally split between the racing club and the operators, but it was noted that no fractions of a shilling would be paid by way of dividends, effectively adding another two or three per cent to the effective "take" [see Appendix D, p] The status of the totalizator in South Australia was formalised on 24 October, with the passing by a majority of eight of a Totalizator Bill sponsored by Mr.
Bean's approach to the introduction of the tote machine was very much of the "lesser of two evils" approach; at one stage he suggested gambling with bookmakers had reached , throughout the colonies an this sum, less five per cent could be saved by use of the totalizator.
The South Australian Register initially ridiculed Bean, suggesting the statute books would be "disgraced by having upon it a measure wantonly legalising gambling" - whether or not it was Bean's persuasions or otherwise, the same publication later declared that the bill "was sure to pass" without pontificating upon its rights or wrongs.
Despite the totalizator being technically legal in Adelaide, the absence of any underlying controls caused ongoing problems with several accusations that odds were manipulated after the race and the issue came to a head on 9 May, when a rank outsider, D. C's Autumn Carnival. It was announced that there was no winning ticket; there was a pool of and 18 starters, no ticket being issued on D. A farmer, identified as Mr. Smith of Reeve Plains then came forward and it was then revealed that there was in fact just one ticket sold, the recording of the fact not visible to the public via the display board.
Only eleven win tickets were sold, two of them to American soldiers. One correspondent later claimed that he had seen a 1 posted against D. D s number 18 and just before the race had remarked the friends on the fact that just a single ticket had been issued, but by the time the horses had returned to scale, the number had disappeared, leaving the crowd to believe nobody had backed the winner and that they were entitled to their money back in the event of the winner not being taken, the totalizator returned 18 shillings in the pound, effectively a 10 per cent cut compared to 5 per cent deducted from the winner.
C could explain the situation. The South Australian Advertiser came to his rescue: " we have seen the ticket the explanation of the affair appears to be that 38 corresponds with 18, which was D. The dividend is still believed to be an Australian record, and D. Bookmakers allowed punters to wager as little as two shillings and sixpence at a time. The success of the totalizator brought about its downfall. In June, , a Mr. Gilbert introduced a Totalizator Repeal Bill, claiming that while he had no connection with any of the religious groups petitioning for the abolition of the machine by then in operation at several country venues including Clare, Gawler and Strathalbyn , he was concerned at the huge expansion of betting by the public, suggesting that on the two days of the Adelaide Cup meeting of , 5, had been wagered through the tote, but in , the figure had exceeded 20, on the first day alone.
The Government agreed to treat the debate as an open question; several of those who had originally supported the totalizator now believing it had been a mistake and reversing their position. The South Australian Advertiser after the second reading of the Bill in the Legislative Assembly declared the totalizator "doomed", "the abuses of the system have inevitably condemned it".
Remarkably, during the six or seven weeks that South Australian politicians argued the pros and cons of the machine, a Bill was introduced in Western Australia to legalise the totalizator in that colony. Racing in Adelaide and its environs stagnated, many owners transferring their horses to Melbourne and trainers and jockeys following suit.
The sport in Adelaide virtually ceased and the original S. Most of the runners were Victorian-based, and in answer to the obvious trivia question, the winner was Mr E. Ellis's four year old gelding, Lord Wilton ridden by T. The Adelaide Cup, first run in , was abandoned from until , the South Australian Derby did not resume until , the Goodwood Handicap in An attempt in June, to re-introduce a Totalizator Bill was made by Mr. Rowland Rees, the member for Onkaparinga, one of the areas impacted by the abolition of the machine.
He also somewhat vehemently criticised several of the opponents of the Bill, another move which won him neither personal favour or support for his Bill which failed to pass the second reading. Twelve months later, Rees tried again, adopting a more conciliatory approach and withdrawing the unexpectedly offensive provision for charity. The Bill passed the Legislative Council on 19 September with a number of restrictions the tote could only be used on three courses within 20 miles of central Adelaide Morphettville, East Park Lands later Victoria Park and Onkaparinga and on country courses provided they were more than 20 miles distant from the nearest totalizator.
Even before the Bill was passed, moves were afoot to reform the South Australian Jockey Club, and the first totalizator meeting was held at Morphettville on 29 September, just ten days after the legislation came into being. The totalizator was also legal in Queensland from December, , but not by any specific Act of law, the Attorney General, the Hon. Radcliffe Pring simply ruling that that was no reason why it could not operate under the existing legislation.
Dawbarn, secretary of the Brisbane Jockey Club, dated November 25, in which he says, ' I am glad to inform you that so late as this morning I have learnt from our Attorney-General officially that he does not consider the totalisator an illegal instrument under the statutes of Queensland having reference to gaming; consequently it will not be necessary to trouble Parliament with a Bill.
I will make his decision known to my committee at. South Australian Chronicle and Weekly Mail, 13 December, Pring's determination was interesting to say the least - he was appointed the position a few days before the first appearance of a totalizator on a Queensland course Eagle Farm on 24 May, Complicating the issue further was that Pring was the most prominent racehorse owner in Brisbane and president of the Queensland Turf Club who conducted the meeting! Garrett to legalize the totalizator was introduced in the New South Wales Parliament in November, most newspapers and journals supported the move provided that the totalizator was to be controlled by the racing clubs and not in the hands of an individual, Franck being specifically referred to - but the move was thwarted at the second reading of the Bill in February of the following year, defeated , although a further Bill to suppress betting passed 24 to 5.
The N. Totalizator Royal Commission The first attempts to legalize the totalizator in New South Wales came in November, , immediately following the passing of the legislation in Adelaide and at pretty much the same time as similar moves were taking place in Melbourne. The second reading of the proposed bill was defeated 19 to 14 in February of the following year, the major concern not being an effect on gambling habits, but fears that the machine could be tampered with and the virtual monopoly to be handed to the proprietor Franck.
A Betting Suppression Act passed during the same sitting. By , totalizators were operating on-course in all four of the minor Australian states and in New Zealand where bookmakers were abolished early in the following year, never to return , but remarkably other than via the various Private Member's Bills, there had really been no concerted to seriously address the situation in Melbourne or Sydney.
Totalizators had also been introduced and bookmakers abolished in France, Holland and South Africa. Robert Levien, M. For a change, Levien did not rail against bookmakers, his proposed Bill was well and truly aimed at revenue raising and suggesting that the Bill could raise revenue of , yearly. In 'the Dominion, almost 2,, worth of business was done on the totalizator in 12 months I make no secret of it, that what I intend under the provisions of my bill is to have at least 4 to 5 per cent, deducted from the totalizator for the Government".
Levien's move gained little momentum, but in October, another private Bill was introduced by a Mr. Fitzpatrick, this time with the support of eight other members. The early sessions of the Commission were not open to the press, but behind-the-scenes reports suggested that the bulk of the evidence presented had been favourable to the machine. A senior Police Inspector stated he was in favour of the machine as it eliminated credit betting and therefore lowered the level of gambling, As well as Sydney, the Commission also sat for several weeks in New Zealand to hear evidence based on the New Zealand experience of "Mr.
Julius's" totalizator, the Chief Justice Sir Robert Stout there contradicting the police view, suggesting that if bookmakers were eliminated and replaced by the totalizator then gambling would not decrease, but increase perhaps significantly, he asserted that he was strongly opposed to gambling of any sort.
Rather remarkably while the Commission was still sitting, Levien revealed that the bulk of evidence taken in New Zealand was in favour of the machine and that the racing public of N. When the Commission resumed in Sydney in April, Mr. Croppe, secretary of the Australian Jockey Club stated he was in favour of the totalizator and retaining bookmakers, and suggesting the likely turnover on a tote at Randwick would be about , per year.
When queried on the percentages, the witness confirmed that they far exceeded other States because the Government's original 2. The Commissioner also took evidence from an American horse owner and breeder who revealed in 42 of the then 45 states of the Union betting was prohibited altogether and consequently there was no organized horse racing.
In other states, the only betting was through a machine "far ahead of a totalizator" and that by law 95 per cent of turnover had to be returned to the public. Another witness from Queensland suggested that with the totalizator, the A.
The conclusions of the Commission produced something of a bombshell - after sitting for six months and with all-expenses paid trips to New Zealand, Tasmania and Queensland, the report of ten of the eleven-man Commission opposed the introduction of the totalizator 6 votes to 4. The primary reason suggested for the opposition appears to have been based on the Queensland experience where the members found the public "apathetic" towards a machine "that was by no means liberally patronized".
There were also concerns that much of the metropolitan racing was run by proprietary clubs deriving enormous profits that would almost double if tote betting was introduced. The remaining Commission member, Mr.
McCourt presented his own report which was in favour of introducing the machine and the abolition of bookmakers. He had decided not to join the majority of members in reporting findings as he believed that any introduction of a totalizator should be as a result of a Government initiative and not a Private Member's Bill. The status quo remained until when the A.
Government to reconsider the question. The Government took no firm stand on the introduction of the totalizator; the Premier, Mr. William Holman voiced his personal opposition to moves to legalize the machine and declared the Government would not introduce a Bill, while at the same time suggesting it could be raised as a Private Member's Bill. The latter was first mooted by Mr. Cusack, the member for Albury, although there were suggestions that the Bill would stand more chance if put forward by a senior member, and the proposed Bill was eventually put forward in April, by Mr.
John Osborne Parramatta , but with only a limited time before Parliament rose, the Bill lapsed before the second reading. By the commencement of the next sitting, passage of the Bill was almost guaranteed. Government was face with a Budget blow-out of expenditure and with little increase in revenue Holman said, "that the revenue must be supplemented. Therefore, after much consideration he was prepared to supplement it by the totalisator Cheers.
It would be introduced as a Government monopoly The Sydney Morning Herald, 30 November, The Totalizator Bill was re-introduced at the next sitting in December, this time presented by Augustus James, the Minister for Education "it will contain provisions which will practically make the use of totalizators on racecourses compulsory, and will allow of a small percentage of the proceeds being deducted compensating the clubs for its installation and maintenance".
The Bill passed the second reading in the Assembly late on 13 December, and, remarkable, the Legislative Council the following day after the Solicitor-General secure the suspension of Standing Orders to allow the Bill to be considered through all its stages in one sitting. The Bill made compulsory for metropolitan clubs under threat of being fined per day - leaving Victoria as the only state without the facility Tasmania and South Australia were then tote-only operations.
A supplement to the Government Gazette in February of the following year listed an astonishing total of racing clubs that were given to March 31 to install totalizators, the sole exception the A. For the smaller clubs, simpler alternatives were available, and not long after James' Bill was passed, he visited Tasmania where totalizators had operated for many years , ostensibly on a holiday, but with some work thrown in James said, "I am satisfied that what has been contemptuously called the "Jam-Tin" machine, which is used on the small racecourses in Tasmania, is eminently suitable for the country racecourses of this State".
He then explained that he went to a trotting meeting outside of Hobart, where the fields were big, as many as 30 horses starting in a race, always a test of the efficiency of a betting machine. In less than five minutes after the finish of a race the dividends were paid out. The machines, he said, cost 30 each to install, so that in view of these facts, no country race clubs could protest against the expense of the installation".
The first installations in Sydney were, however, Australia's largest and dominated by Automatic Totalisators Limited and the "Julius" machine. There was an 11 per cent deduction, 7 per cent to the Government, 1 per cent to a sinking fund to cover the costs of installation estimated at 45, at Randwick and just 3 per cent to the racing clubs, the latter widely criticized as being far too low.
In fact, while the major clubs were faced with major construction projects, smaller clubs took little time to get their simpler totalizators working. The first meeting in New South Wales where a totalizator operated came at the provincial Kembla Grange course on Tuesday, 13 February, , where record crowds were bolstered by three packed special trains from Sydney.
Rosehill commenced three weeks later and Canterbury Park on 30 June, but Randwick's first totalizator meeting was on 29 September, the Julius tote in use allowing a massive 42 starters in each race. Sweepstakes and Totalizator Clubs Yet another attempt to introduce a totalizator failed in , and one estimate around this time suggested that they were as many as twenty illegal totalizators operating in Melbourne without any police action, until the organisers of one known as the Polk Totalizator in Hotham North Melbourne absconded with over of their client's money.
Police at last acted and a few minor fines were imposed, but most of the tote operators registered themselves as private clubs under a new government scheme that allowed betting between patrons who paid one shilling per year membership. The one shilling, of course, could be paid by anyone walking in off the street, and one report claimed that of twenty such clubs, only two used machines were figures 15 July, Page 19 of 80 Edition 2 24 could be verified, the remainder blackboards or pen and paper where dividends could be manipulated by unscrupulous operators.
Almost of as much concern as illegal betting on racing was the proliferation of uncontrolled sweepstakes or 'consultations', a term carried on by Tattersall's in Australia well into the twentieth century. The Argus just prior to the Spring racing carnival there were at least 55 sweepstakes or lotteries being promoted: "according to the prospectuses which have been Issued by the nameless and unknown promoters of the sweeps, they amount to the aggregate to no less a sum than ,".
They were no different from the draws later offered by Tattersall's in most Australian states up to the present day, but the problem was there was no government control or legislation. A few of the organizers held their draws in open, some invited a press representative to verify the fairness of the proceedings, but just tore up the subscriber's tickets, or "drew" the lucky numbers in private, or in company of a few well-chosen cohorts, the "winning" ticket carefully locked away in a nearby safe.
An early self-styled investigative journalist calling himself the Herald Detective during the year investigated some 19 such sweepstakes, publishing his findings under the heading "Our Blacklist of Swindling Sweeps", 13 of which he claimed were swindles of lesser or greater degree, three he knew little of nothing about, and just three he could unmistakably classify as "square".
Mackey, Tattersall's Horse Bazaar, Exhibition Street disappeared, the former owing some 2, to subscribers to their sweepstake and in the half-completed Cups double, the latter 5,, although at least one commentator suggesting both were in the habit of manipulating their figures and the true amount was unlikely to be ever known. Murray's Totalizator Bills After the defeat of the Bill, debate on the tote went quiet for around eight years before in August , another Bill was introduced, this time by John Murray, the M.
Murray, later Premier of Victoria from May to May, was a Member of the Legislative Assembly for 32 years despite it being claimed on more than one occasion that he tended to overdo his consumption of alcohol and often spoke in the House under the influence. What is puzzling about Murray's support for the tote is that had no close connection with racing interests other than being an ordinary member of the V.
His first attempt appears to have been a hastily constructed piece of legislation which did not pass the first reading of the Bill, but in August of the following year, Murray tried again. This Bill reached a second reading after a long debate with Dr. Smith, now caught between his original pro-totalizator stance, and a now diametrically opposed view as he had in the intervening years been elected president of the Victoria Club, the bookmaker's umbrella organization there is a suggestion he arrived for the debate after a meeting at the Club and may have been a little worse for wear as he vacillated between his conflicting interests.
After much stone-walling and calls for adjournment which would almost certainly been the death of the Bill , it finally passed the reading at 3. The Bill also passed the Committee stage without significant modification, but in a massive blow to both Murray and the racing industry, it was comprehensively rejected by the Legislative Council.
Murray tried again in , but ran into unexpected opposition from the one V. C committeeman that opposed the totalizator - Frank Madden, a fellow M. The Annual Meeting of the V. During the years in which Murray had pushed for the totalizator, the nature of racing had been changing with a number of small suburban tracks run by private individuals racing in many cases on a weekly basis. Most of these courses were of not much more than 6 furlongs in circumference and catered for trotting and races for 'ponies', classified as a horse of Many of the suburban tracks had somewhat less than ideal reputations for honesty, but they proved an immensely popular and cheap alternative to the registered meetings.
Also attracting considerable attention in the press was the growing popularity of John Wren's illegal tote in Collingwood, against which through in no small part by Gaunson's legal skills the police had been unable to record any conviction. Late in , Murray changed tack and introduced a Betting Suppression Bill at the same time as another member Mr. Cuthbert initiated a Street Betting Suppression Act to cover streets and premises not covered by existing legislation.
Murray withdrew his proposed legislation in favour of Cuthbert's. The latter Bill excluded Flemington and Caulfield racecourses and the V. C's hopes were that the legislation would make betting at the unregistered tracks illegal, but it ultimately failed because many members thought it was unfair to country towns that had legitimate courses and that the power to register or exclude a track was extending the V.
C's control over racing to an unacceptable level. Murray's Bill was never debated, and in June, , he tried for the seventh and last time. There was nothing new in the arguments; the V. Most newspapers and journals by this stage had lost interest - the same arguments went to and fro incessantly, and by now, they had a juicier source of news - John Wren's flourishing Collingwood tote.
Police had attempted to raid the building several times, but Wren had taken the precaution of taking possession of properties to either side and to the rear of the building where he installed "spotters" as well as an elaborate system of trapdoors connecting the properties to ensure that any evidence of betting was removed before police gained access to the inner sanctum of the tote itself.
The set-up proved almost impenetrable, and in , rather than a bill to legalise the totalizator on course, it was a Bill specifically aimed at Wren's operations that caught the headlines. Wren's totalizator had a reputation for honesty and fair dealings and many thought that there was little harm in his activities, but it was Mr. Cuthbert to the fore again when he introduced amendments to the Police Offences Act designed to give police the right of access to premises adjoining gaming houses in order to gain evidence.
The old arguments were trotted out, and a new theme emerged with some members expressing annoyance at being asked to legislate in recompense for what they saw as a failure of the police to gain convictions against Wren. There was little opposition in the Assembly, but it the Council where it was believed Wren was already exerting some political influence it was a different matter and the legislation failed by a single vote.
The V. The Bill disappeared in April when the Government called an early end to the parliamentary session. Another Bill was raised in By this time, Madden was the newly appointed Speaker of the House and Murray the Minister for Lands, neither man choosing to speak. The move originated with Elisha Druffus, the member for Port Fairy, and came on July 1, just three weeks after a State election.
Madden, the arch-opponent of the change frowning at him from the chair. The query is why Mr. Madden has been put out of the road? Beautiful, is it not to see localities devoting themselves to 15 July, Page 21 of 80 Edition 2 26 some good cause. What is there in the air of Warrnambool and Koroit that makes their residents long so for machine betting? The Argus, 2 July, Concerns over the increasing number of race meetings and a proportional increase in betting especially at the proprietary courses kept on rising, Wren's illegal tote operation continued to flourish, and pressure on the Government came to a head when a defaulting bookmaker was trampled to death on the flat at Flemington in July, Within a month, another Gaming Suppression Act the first not to include a totalizator was before Parliament where it dominated debate for nearly three months.
The old arguments were thrown up, but with no totalizator included in its provisions, the usual opponents were forced to either agree to the Bill or be seen to be defending Wren. The Bill was passed in the Assembly on 8 November, its provisions inter alia that lotteries were to be illegal. There were several close divisions in the Upper House, but the Bill was passed on Friday, December The same sitting of the Council passed a License Reductions Bill with a view to reducing the number of hotels in Victoria by a third.
Whether the Bill and the closure of the Collingwood tote meant much to John Wren is debatable - by this time he had acquired several legitimate pony racing and trotting tracks and had interests in other ventures both in and out of sporting circles. Thomas Bent's Anti Gaming Bill came into force early in , but with an unexpected consequence for one weekend, it made betting illegal at Flemington, Caulfield and every other race course in Victoria!
The Bill passed just before dawn after an exhausting "all-nighter". Bent was allegedly dozing at the Table and a number of his back-benchers were sleeping peacefully when a renowned anti-gambling critic, Frank Anstey jumped to his feet and denounced the proposed measures, claiming that under it, "boys could be prosecuted for playing marbles for "keeps" or spinning a top".
The legislation was based on a clause banning gambling "in any place, but which did not include a racecourse during a meeting". Anstey moved that all the words following "place" be deleted, Labor members jumped to their feet in support, and a half-awake Premier accepted the amendment which was duly passed. Race clubs were thrown into a panic by Anstey's move and called protest meetings, with the V. Bent quickly realised he had been outwitted by Anstey and at the first sitting of the House the following week moved an amendment to restore the original wording, subsequently passed on party lines after a rowdy debate Mr.
Julius "Mr. After working on various engineering projects with the Western Australian railways for around 11 years, Julius almost accidentally invented his first totalizator in it was originally designed to be a vote counting machine, but after the Western Australian Government rejected the design, he adapted it for use as a totalizator.
Whether the device was quite all his own work as has been regularly documented may well be open to question. Julius' device was later marketed as the "Premier" Totalizator. Given totalizator betting by its very nature is somewhat "top heavy" with the vast majority of money placed in the last ten minutes or so before a race when pools are larger and estimated returns therefore more reliable, this placed enormous pressure on the operators and in many cases, estimated dividends were still changing after the race had ended.
The attitudes of Percy Punter to this was predictable - if his dividend increased, he was happy, if it decreased, he wasn't - but overall, it led to the perception that odds could be, and were being manipulated after races had been decided.
Some states introduced legislation that prevented course operators from actually starting a race until all totalizator betting had been properly recorded. Tracks were then forced to close the tote some five or ten minutes before a race was due to start to the annoyance of punters and with a subsequent loss of revenue to the club itself, but even then this sometimes proved ineffective and led to some racing authorities taking the extreme step of refusing to start races until they got the all-clear from the tote operator that all tickets had been recorded and that the ultimate pool was known - in some cases where betting had been especially heavy, as much as another ten minute delay for nervous owners, jockeys and horses.
Although Julius professed little interest in racing of any kind other than his various devices to simplify wagering he confessed in later life that he modified his vote-counting machine without ever having seen a racecourse , he was a son-in-law of Mr.
The Lee Steere Stakes remains one of Perth's most important races, an coincidentally, Lee Steere's horse Second Wind won the first Williamstown Cup on which a tote operated in November, his second consecutive win in the race. His modified device was first installed at the Ellerslie racecourse in Auckland in , becoming the world's first fully automatic totalizator right.
He continued to develop his designs for a tote and in he founded Automatic Totalisators Limited, just after his second tote was installed at Gloucester Park trotting track in Perth. The Gloucester Park installation allowed for 26 starters per race a huge number for a trotting event , and had six windows capable of selling tickets per minute; it was suggested that each clerk can handle about 80 bets per minute compared to a maximum of 25 on the previous manual system.
A large collection of the company's early drawings and designs now comprise an important archive at the Powerhouse Museum in Sydney. Many of the early meetings of the new organisation were held in rooms at Julius, Poole and Gibson's offices in Sydney before the Council acquired their own premises. Meet Percy Punter. Totalizator building. Ellerslie, New Zealand, The world's first automatic totalizator system, pre-assembled 15 July, Page 23 of 80 at the A.
The last of the Julius-designed totalizators ceased operating on 25 September, at Harringay Stadium, a dog-racing track in North London, the original equipment having been installed in Julius died in Sydney on 28 June, at 73 years of age.
The links for Automatic Totalisators Limited in the Appendices also contain a considerable amount of detail on Julius. The Victoria Racing Club The Victoria Racing Club addressed the issue again on 9 April, , a meeting at Menzie's Hotel hearing that the introduction of the machine would materially increase revenue to the club and advantage the public by lessening the evils of credit betting.
One prominent member, W. Yuille opposed the bill, declaring it was "beneath the dignity of the V. He also compiled the first Australian Stud Book, first published in The motion in favour of legalization was nevertheless passed by a considerable majority by the V. The first moves to establish a legalized totalizator in the colony came on 19 May, when the Legislative Assembly heard the first reading of the Betting Prevention Bill introduced by prominent lawyer David Gaunson, then the M.
This was the first of several attempts to introduce a Betting Prevention Bill over the next decade - both the name and the instigator perhaps ironic. Gaunson mixed a fairly stormy political career it was once said he would never support the Government, regard of which political colour it represented with his legal practice, where he became something of an enemy of the Melbourne establishment a year or two later by defending Ned Kelly and then some twenty years afterwards when acting as the legal advisor to the notorious Collingwood illegal tote operator, John Wren.
Despite his later reputation as something of a firebrand, Gaunson's attempt at legalizing the totalizator seems to have lacked any real conviction. Some observers noted his lack of enthusiasm when speaking on behalf of the Bill and went further, suggesting he may have been acting as a mouthpiece for the V. Gaunson himself admitted that he knew nothing about the machine and that "though the law practically refused to recognise betting, a great many people suffered from their rashness in betting and it had been asserted to him that if the totalizator was legalized it would reduce the evil to a minimum of two evils", adding "the principle seemed to be to choose the least of the two", and hence perhaps setting the tone for several other later unsuccessful Bills.
The opponents of the totalizator comprise two components that at first glance appear incompatible - bookmakers legal or otherwise that were seeking a monopoly of gambling, and the Churches and other element s in the community which were oppose to gambling in any shape of form and saw the totalizator as a means of increasing betting.
There was another group partly opposed, but more because they foresaw a ban on bookmakers if the tote was introduced; racehorse owners an large punters who claimed they would not be able to pace substantial bets on the totalizator because they would simply be getting their own money back. Many newspapers and journals thought the Bill had a strong chance of success, as much as because it sought for the abolition of bookmakers and credit betting as for any inherent value in the totalizator itself.
Although nominally the Betting Prevention Act, it was almost entirely designed to legalize totalisator betting and with perfect clarity proffered by hindsight, the main reason why this and other later attempts failed was simply that it placed no restrictions on bookmaker operations. Unlike in Queensland and Western Australia, the combined impact of these Acts made the introduction of totalizator betting almost impossible without a specific Statute.
Many sections of the Government, racing fraternity and public in general believed a totalizator system with a guaranteed profit to the operator who need not be concerned with which horse won or lost was much more preferable to bookmakers who had a vested interest in the actual result, and, in some cases, were willing to manipulate the result of a particular event by influencing jockeys, trainers or strappers or even in extreme cases causing horses to come to harm.
The Argus suggested that as the operators of the machine in receiving a flat percentage of the turnover had no interest in what horse was successful, it would "purify the turf" by removing the propensity of bookmakers "to trick backers, pull horses and bribe jockeys".
There had also been a couple of prominent court cases when previously respectable men had faced charges of embezzlement and other crimes because they had found themselves burdened with debts to bookmakers, while another concern was the number of unlegislated sweepstakes being run by sometimes unscrupulous operators that either did a "moonlight flit" or manipulated the draw in their Uncle George's favour.
Unfortunately for the supporters of the totalizator, Gaunson's Bill, perhaps the best chance of the machine's introduction never went past the first reading when the government led by James Service was defeated in a dispute over amendments to council franchises.
But the seeds had been sown and a similar Bill was proposed in October, , by the colourful Dr. Louis Lawrence Smith, a medical practitioner cum politician who had amassed a fortune, mostly from providing medical advice usually suggesting ill-defined home cures by mail from his city office for 1 a time. Smith, rather than addressing the House on the first reading of his proposed Betting Prevention Act produced Siegfried Franck, who gave a demonstration of his latest totalizator machine.
At the second reading, Smith argued that the totalizator was approved in Queensland and South Australia, had been narrowly rejected in New South Wales, and had the support of most of the leading journals of the time as well of the influential Victoria Racing Club.
Most of the arguments for and against were gone over again. There was no mention in the local press, but New Zealand's West Coast Times reported on 12 September, "a company is being formed in Melbourne to work a totalisator.
Oddly enough the chairman is a chemist named Gamble, and the secretary's name is Grabb". The totalizator would make betting easier and fairer than with bookmakers, therefore it was good; the totalizator would make betting easier and fairer than with bookmakers, therefore it was bad; it would benefit horse racing, hence this was good, it would benefit horse racing, hence this was bad; gambling was an inherent human vice and therefore could be controlled but not eliminated, gambling was an inherent human vice and therefore must be eliminated repeat ad infinitum.
Smith actually got the Bill through the Legislative Assembly before Parliament adjourned for a spectacular Melbourne Cup week with massive boosts to the normal crowds from visitors to the Melbourne International Exhibition. Most newspapers and journals expected the Legislative Council to reject the Bill, and after some argument, a Select Committee of six members was set up to hear evidence from key witnesses, mostly from police and the racing fraternity. Cox, who owned the private course at Kensington Park where the tote was first used.
The Committee on the casting vote of the chairman recommended the introduction of a tote, emphasizing its advantages at eliminating credit betting, but after further argument in the Council, the Bill was lost, 11 votes to An almost identical Bill was re-introduced in November of the following year by Mr. Alexander Fraser, the Member for the North West Province as "a means of lessening the evils arising from betting on race courses", but with rather less enthusiasm and it failed to pass the Assembly stage being defeated July, Page 25 of 80 Edition 2 30 An alternative Bill was proposed just a fortnight later, this with some specific legislation to eliminate sweepstakes and lotteries along with a few minor amendments to restrict gambling, but again the proposal stalled in the Legislative Assembly.
Fraser retired from politics soon afterwards. The Roaring Twenties Strangely enough, from until , there was little heard about introducing a totalizator in Victoria. Murray, now Chief Secretary, expressed his support for the totalizator again at the start of a Parliamentary session in July, and was pressed at one stage to hold a referendum to determine the public's attitude for once and for all, but he rejected the moves, stating " There was flurry of interest in March and April of after the V.
Farthing, the M. It was also suggested that there was little chance of the totalizator being introduced in Victoria before N. The Government of the day on more than one occasion expressed the view that the introduction of the totalizator "should not be the subject of a Government measure", suggesting that any such move would have to be as the result of a private members Bill as it so often had been in the past some newspapers commentators believed that a majority of the Cabinet in fact opposed the move.
W and 2. Bayles in October, but the Legislative Assembly session closed just three weeks later and before the Bill was read a second time. With racing severely restricted during the Great War, it wasn't until that advocates of the totalizator found another champion, this time in the person of the new M.
A, for Barwon, Edward Morley. Morley declared his support for the totalizator from the start, and after some encouragement introduced a private Members Bill in August, , hoping to win Ministerial support, especially from the Treasurer, Mr. William McPherson, whose portfolio was considered to be the most affected.
Unfortunately, neither the Treasurer nor the Labor Opposition leader supported the Bill, predominantly because it did nothing to abolish or reduce the number of bookmakers and directed the Government's share of the turnover estimated at , directly to General Revenue rather than to hospitals or a charitable cause.
One novel argument put forward for the totalizator was that it may in fact reduce the level of betting if bookmakers were eliminated, as punters could only bet when the machines started operating, whereas the bagmen took bets from the time weights were declared, sometimes four or five days before the race. After two days debate and an all-night sitting, Morley's Bill was rejected comprehensively on the second reading, 15 all Labor Party members to 41, but there seems to have some conviction that if a similar Bill with minor amendments and Government support were introduced, there was some chance that Victoria might finally join all the other states, either with a combination of bookmakers and tote, or with a totalizator only system.
Morley continued his campaign, in suggesting that a number of miniature totalizators using "play money" be set up around leading country courses to help familiarize the race-going public in its use; the mini-totes to be complemented by a series of movies explaining their use, even at one stage approaching the Speaker of the Assembly for permission to install a model in Parliament House. He changed his stance on bookmakers, although still not pushing for abolition; instead suggesting that no new licenses be issued and that they would disappear through natural attrition over twelve or fifteen years.
The Government was rather slow to react surprise! Members of both the Nationalist and Country Parties had threatened to vote against moves to increase state taxation unless the Ministry considered legalizing the totalizator to raise additional taxation. John Allan and the Treasurer Sir Alexander Peacock had both opposed Morley's Bill, but with the pressure of the Depression severely impacting State finances and with every other state enjoying the advantages of the revenue from the on-course totalizator, they changed their stance.
This was, however, a time when Liberal and Country Party relationships were somewhat strained and many newspapers and journals thought that despite the Ministerial support, the Bill would have difficulty in passing the Assembly, and so it proved. The Bill was scheduled to be introduced in October with the end of the Parliamentary session scheduled in December, and in the intervening period, there was predictably a number of protest meetings organized, and on December 15, Peacock with the Budget yet to be approved, dropped a bomb shell in response to a question from a back-bencher when he announced that the Totalizator Bill would not in fact be introduced in that session.
In the only Test match on the tour played to a finish, a draw looked certain at Lord s before Joe Darling put the Victorian on to bowl. In a few moments he completely changed the aspect of the game, disposing of Johnny Tyldesley, Tom Hayward, and Gilbert Jessop in quick succession, and enabling Australia to claim the victory. While performing the dual role of team manager and player in and , Laver was the Right: Frank Laver as photographed by George Beldham in [MCC Library collection] 10 11 most successful bowler in Test matches, and in he led all bowlers on tour, averaging 13 runs per wicket.
Although he took seven wickets in a Test game in , the greatest feat of Laver s career was his bowling against England in Hugh Trumble held the view that the English wickets were more suited to Laver s bowling. Such was Laver s bowling dominance at times that one article claimed he bowled English batsmen with his right arm, after dislocating the other onboard ship. They also had a constitutional right to select a playermanager. Laver, who was a players person and immensely popular with them, was selected for the tour.
An astute and successful businessman, he had previously kept meticulous books for the players and managed expenses and receipts to the satisfaction of his team mates. However, the Board of Control was intent on wresting control of money management from the manager and allocated the treasury function to the board s delegate. Laver argued that the Board of Control was not only reverting back to an old arrangement but also that their revenue estimates for the tour - 17, or 18, - were unrealistic.
These figures are not a correct estimate he wrote, The estimate of expenses is about correct that is for current expenses, but it must be remembered, that there are hotel charges to be accounted for in addition. Even so, he was accused of disloyalty, in part because he was arguing that the right people were not on the governing bodies. He responded to the criticism, I consider I am loyal, for I am a believer in a Board of Control, and, though many people will be surprised to hear it, I am practically the founder of the board.
The Board of Control remained unmoved by the player strike and, in spite of a heated selectors meeting in which punches were thrown including a minute fist fight between McAlister and Hill 10 Laver remained out of favour with the Board.
Any suggestion that the players could have a free hand in selecting the manager was so much poppycock, declared journalist and cricket commentator Alban Johnny Moyes. Only the Big Ship Armstrong played for Australia again.
Laver ended his administrative association with cricket in He believed his East Melbourne club secretary had canvassed against him in the poll for the committee when he was defeated for the first time in more than a quarter of a century's service to the club, which included 15 as captain, a long stint as a Victorian Cricket Association delegate and 12 years as a state selector. Altogether, Laver played first-class matches in his career between and From his 15 Test matches he scored runs at an average of and took 37 wickets at an average of Laver also played for Victoria captaining the side in later years, scoring 2, runs and taking wickets.
But cricket wasn t the only sport for which Frank Laver was famous. He was also a key figure in the development of baseball in Australia. He was considered the best purely Australian pitcher in baseball this country has produced 12 and captained the ill-fated baseball team 13 that went to America in During his public dispute with the cricket Board of Control in , he was in Sydney playing baseball with the Australian team against the American Fleet. Contemporaries hypothesised that he probably acquired the art of swerving the cricket ball through playing baseball, 16 and his batting might also have benefitted: It may have been a natural gift, as was the mowing act, or it might have been the result of his batting practice at baseball.
Whatever the reason, his execution was deadly, as he could hit even a bowler like Jones out of the ground to square-leg off a full toss. The firm developed a large trade throughout Australia and with England and China. The State Government recognised the success of Laver Bros.. When the Victorian Director of Agriculture, Dr Cameron appointed a committee to advise the state cabinet on the establishment of canning factories for the treatment of vegetables and fruit grown in the irrigation districts, the committee visited Laver Bros.
Bill Ferguson, Australian touring cricket side scorer-baggage master from to and creator of cricket s wagon wheel - noted that, England was a very sedate country in those days. Manners, etiquette and breeding were the paramount virtues, and, wanting to be taken for a gentleman of distinction, our manager, Mr Frank Laver, followed the English fashion of the day by appearing frequently in top hat and frock coat. He wrote that he had received a stag s head from the Duke of Fife.
He had also pratted with the Prince of Wales and the Lord Chief Justice of England and had been entertained by the nobility of the old country. His descriptions appeal to the imagination. Coaling scenes at Colombo ; the luxuriant foliage of tropical Ceylon, seething hordes of Singalese salesmen and gaudy Hindus ; hot and languid Port Said, with its statue of the heroic De Lesseps, long piers, ships of all nations from ocean liners to Arab dhow ; the medley ashore, Arabs, Egyptians, Somalis, acrobats, fortune-tellers, jugglers, beggars, and tall Sudanese police, black as ink, a veritable human melting-pot.
It is not reported how they met, but there are several possibilities. It might have been in Melbourne during the spring horse racing season as Myrtle nearly always accompanied her sister and Sydney socialite Lilian Keogh, who comes down for all the big race meetings and goes over to Flemington at Cup time, 28 and where Lilian also had many Melbourne friends.
Cricket always appeals to her, perhaps more strongly than any other outdoor sport. For years she has never missed an interstate or international cricket match in Sydney. When the American baseball matches were played, she was keenly interested in that game, too. Allan s Music Warehouse , who from had a large musical warehouse in Melbourne.
The Allan s store, where Laver s piano was probably bought, was located at and Collins Street, Melbourne. It was originally known as the city home of country people and was renowned for the pastoral property auctions held there, as the gathering place for racehorse owners and breeders, as the Melbourne residence of English cricketers such as WG Grace and as Dame Nellie Melba s favourite hotel.
As Myrtle s family were engaged in a wide range of community activities, and were prominent in both business and land holdings in the area, the wedding attracted a lot of local interest. Keen to introduce his new wife to his other interests, Frank had arranged a tour of New Zealand, Tonga, Samoa, and Fiji for their honeymoon, but owing to the war they spent their time away instead at Mt. Its possession is now very much what the ownership of a gig once was an unmistakable indication of respectability.
It may be only in the cottage form, and it may lack its full compass, but so long as it is present the situation is saved. This, of course, is eminently satisfactory to Stuttgart Kalgoorlie Miner, April 2, , p. In Australia the foreign-made piano has an astonishing popularity. Sunday Times, February 5, , p. Pianos command a special place in the Australian psyche and in nation building.
As such, pianos were the dominant musical instrument in the period between the s until the s in particular. Demand for pianos soared with the rising prosperity and middle class in Australia in the latter part of the 19th Century, and most notably in Victoria where the gold rushes from the s stimulated affluence and social progress.
It has been estimated that , pianos were imported to Australia prior to federation in This is a phenomenal number considering that, according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, there were only , dwellings in Australia at that time, which nearly equates to one piano for every dwelling! Made in Stuttgart, Germany, about , the wedding gesture would have cost Frank s friends approximately guineas 42 a little under four months wages on an average employee s salary.
Above: Wertheim, seen in this picture of the German Hall at the Centennial International Exhibition, in Melbourne, are awarded a gold medal for sewing machines but will become synonymous Australian piano manufacturing. The 5ft. Lipp set the standard in piano manufacture and the firm was known for building high-quality, hand-made durable instruments of superior touch and rich, warm and very powerful tone.
Lipp pianos were skilfully crafted from the world s finest materials, including hand-selected seasoned woods, most likely sourced from the conveniently located in the Black Forest. Lipp was respected as one of Germany s most prestigious old world piano manufacturers, the firm enjoyed a great deal of success throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Pianos made between and which includes Frank Laver s piano - are considered to be some of the best built pianos in the world, ranking alongside Steinway, Bluthner, Bechstein and other great makers.
By , the company produced about pianos a year. While steam-engines were used in their piano factory, Lipp insisted that the most important parts would be made by hand because the machine had no intelligence, no feeling, no thought. Vintage instruments by the firm are rarely encountered in the United States. The photos are from negatives taken by him, shortly before his death, on a memorable trip across the Northern Territory in company with Alf Laver and Dr. The property comprised many acres of lowlying and sloping land east of Walmer Street Bridge and Studley Park.
By , Laver had spent both a considerable amount of money and three years effort in preparing the ground and installing an irrigation system, reticulated from the Yan Yean water supply, for the cultivation of asparagus, which had just been put down. Unfortunately, in the Yarra flooded and ruined the crop although the damage was not as serious as Laver expected. While the Lavers' bungalow home was above flood level and his Lipp piano safe, two houses he owned off Young Street were flooded out.
The tenants had been able to remove their furniture before the water came down and were given accommodation at the Lavers' home for the duration. Their cultivated grounds adjoining the bridge at the top of Burnley Street were again submerged. Laver estimated he lost 20, strawberry plants. Fortunately for the peace of his small children, also displayed were scores of beautiful presentations bearing eloquent testimony to the eminence attained by Laver in the peaceful fields of sport.
The War to end all Wars was still fresh in a nation s mind so the press were keen to point out the principality of Luxemburg, invaded by the Germans at the beginning of the war, covers square miles. Roly Pope, a Sydney friend and eye specialist and international cricketer of the s. In June they left Darwin after preparing for the trip overland. The little party encountered much that would have curbed the ambition of many adventurers, but the three companions persevered in the face of many hardships.
Pianos made for more temperate, or less changeable climatic conditions, often suffered when exposed to the harsher Australian environment. What about the Toorak baker whose family play Rule, Britannia, on the piano while he serves loyal Britishers? Gee, Weiss! Graphic of Australia, June 30, , p. Germany s imperial ambitions had a strong impact in Australia.
During the nineteenth century and well into the twentieth, German-speaking immigrants constituted the largest ethnic community in Australia that originated outside the British Isles. From the s German settlers escaping the rising nationalist sentiment in Germany began arriving in the Australian colonies looking to start a new life. German Australians maintained strong cultural ties with their German heritage up until the Great War. When war broke out in , this changed to outright hostility. As far back as , Germany had undertaken a strategy of industrial revival.
Otto von Bismarck, the conservative Prussian statesman and first Chancellor of the German Empire and , not only initiated a protectionist policy for the home market, but he also organized a consular service where each consul was a servant of German commerce and industry.
Bismarck also subsidized the merchant marine and lowered the costs of land transportation in order to give German manufacturers a greater trade advantage. Even so, Germany was considered favorably in Australia. In when Frederick Louis William, King of Prussia and German Emperor, died, the Victorian Government directed that 91 minute guns be fired as a mark of respect to the memory of the late Emperor of Germany, 55 flags in rural towns like Horsham were placed at half-mast as a token of respect, and in the local churches on Sunday, brief allusion was made to his lamentable death and to the deep loss the world had sustained.
In , his mother took the journey to Germany with William and three other sons Arthur, Rudolph and Ralph. They were accompanied by an old family friend, Otto Jung, who had become guardian of the under-age boys when their father died in , and who continued to care for them after their mother s death at Frankfurt-am-Main in or In , as Ormond Professor of Music, he opened the Grainger Museum at the University of Melbourne. It is probable that Percy Grainger s attendance at the Hoch Conservatory in initially stemmed from William Laver s advice.
Until England was the world leading piano maker, but on the eve of the Great War, Germany had about piano factories, some of them producing from 3, to 7, pianos per year and the total output of all factories is estimated at about , pianos annually while the total production of Great Britain hardly exceeds 75, pianos a year. The German Court ranked third in size, occupying , square feet, 58 and on due examination, scores of interesting exhibits of general manufactures are found, but the visitor is inclined to think the German Court is all pianos.
In the six years ending in , German piano imports into Australia were Firstly, the prices of German pianos by virtue of Bismarck s trade strategies - were ridiculously affordable 65 and secondly, the Australian innovation of time payment brought the cost of pianos within reach of a working class.
Both companies began as importers who took risks during the s depression to tool up for large-scale manufacture. The founders of both companies were immigrants Octavius Beale an Irish Quaker who would later become a Freemason; Hugo Wertheim a German Jew who would convert to Christianity and become a naturalized Australian. Octavius Beale, after a brief association with Hugo Wertheim in Melbourne selling sewing machines, bicycles, and pianos, moved to NSW where he established a piano factory in Annandale, Sydney.
As an advocate of Empire preference, Beale had lunched with Joseph Chamberlain in London in and pushed for tariff protection for the Australian piano industry, particularly against German pianos. Such was the political focus on nation-building that Deakin also laid the foundation stone for Wertheim s official factory, opening on October 21, Hugo Wertheim invested 70, an absolutely astronomical sum at the time - to build a red brick piano factory at 22 Bendigo Street, Richmond, Melbourne.
It hosted its own power generator and tram line, and at its peak, employed up to people and had the capacity to produce up to 2, pianos a year, including 12 grand pianos. Wertheim had migrated from Frankfurt, Germany to Melbourne, Australia in as a reasonably wealthy man. He was sent by his father, Meyer Wertheim, to travel the world as an agent for the family s sewing machine business. Wertheim began importing cheap German pianos and rebadging them as The Planet and Habsburg Wertheim, possibly as early as Before the war the lobbying of music merchants such as Allans Music and W.
Paling was incessant. They could import German-made instruments that were cheaper to manufacture than those made by Beale, Wertheim and other smaller Australian manufacturers. The industrial debate at that time reflected and stirred up patriotic and nationalistic sentiments surrounding Australian-made products, local employment and wages 68, not nationality.
Evidence of the importance of pianos in the vision to create an Australian industrial economy and a striking example of the fostering influence on industry of a high protective tariff such as that recently introduced by the Federal Government 69 is provided in the list of attendees for the opening of Wertheim s piano factory. It was a grand affair with prominent business people in addition to politicians who, as always, were anxious to associate themselves with the creation of a large number of new jobs.
This piano factory in Victoria was considered to be an important demonstration of the importance of the Commonwealth Government s New Protection policies designed to encourage local manufacturing. As an importer of pianos and sewing machines, Wertheim had been a strong opponent of the protectionist policy in the early days of federation, but after hefty piano duties were imposed by the Commonwealth Government, he decided to manufacture pianos in Australia instead of importing them 70, prompting Prime Minister Deakin to felicitously welcome Mr.
Wertheim as a convert from free-trade to protection. Wertheim, in a response detailed his reasons for embarking on this great enterprise, which would link his sons future with the future of Australian industry. Like Beale, Wertheim pianos were designed for the southeastern Australian climate and were a popular all-purpose piano.
All pianos were hand-crafted using predominantly Australian materials and were used in a range of settings such as schools and public halls, as they were renowned for their ability to stay in tune for prolonged periods of time, requiring little maintenance. They were also used by piano teachers and for professional live performance, the most famous of which was for performances by Nellie Melba, who frequently requested that Wertheim Pianos be used during her performances.
Prime Minister Billy Hughes had told Australians that no person of enemy origin, whether naturalised or otherwise, will be permitted to hold shares in companies incorporated in Australia. With names like Hugo Wertheim, Herbert Wertheim, and Herman Bodenheimer on the directorate of the former company, the authorities will have to watch to see that the shareholders list is properly cleared, and that the shares are not merely given over to someone else temporarily. Piano owners who had purchased their pianos on time payment were questioning whether they were legally obliged to fulfill their payments if their debt was to a German company.
Piano Tuners and Repairers felt compelled to write a letter to their local newspaper to point out that not only was their surname of Swiss origin, not German, but they had come to Australia 37 years ago and were naturalised 26 years ago. Let them tell in music the patriotism which is in their hearts.
In Frank Laver received a letter from his brother Rudolph who was trapped in Berlin due to the War. The letter was sent out with an American tourist soon after the declaration of war. Rudolph was under contract until April to manage Bergmann s electrical and engineering works in Berlin, but the war had changed his status and instead of visiting the works, he and his wife were required to report twice daily to police bureau, and remain inside their house all night between the hours of 8pm and 7am.
Fortunately, being an Australian he was not interned, as English-born residents were, but as Bergmann s were producing material for Germany s war effort, Rudolph automatically lost his position. The Melbourne Cricket Club gains a piano On Frank Laver s journey to inspect his Northern Territory property in , and just miles short of the party s goal, Laver contracted an illness and was seized with paralysis.
Having missed a waterhole that they had been making for, no water was obtainable till next day. Being a very tall and heavily built man, it was impossible for them to move him far without the aid of an appropriate vehicle. Alfred Laver sent a dozen telegrams from Powell s Creek seeking help, but it took eight days for a car to reach the stranded explorers from Camooweal, on the border of Queensland and South Australia. Fortunately, Mr Frank Laver was a man of strong constitution.
The ordeal would have killed a weaker man. Though helpless, he retained his memory, and was able to converse with his comrades, who were set a difficult task to get him safely back over the thousands of miles separating him from home. When Frank died, so did Myrtle s love of cricket. After leaving school Patricia had trained to be a nurse and in she married Mr Norman Trounce of Narromine. The bride was given away by her uncle, Mr.
Oscar Major. Laver never goes to watch the cricket says she never will again. Hawthorn and went to school from her home. Around , bombs were dropped on Stuttgart during the course of the war and 39, buildings were damaged or destroyed by the attacks.
None of the third generation of the family was interested in running the business, and the depression had a severe impact. The Wertheims struggled on by sharing the Richmond site with three competitors Allans, Paling s and Sutton s. In the early s, the popularity of the wireless decreased demand for pianos and the factory was closed in after producing around 18, pianos over 27 years. The Wertheim property was sold to Heinz to become the site for food preserving.
There are plans for the remainder to be developed into retirement and aged care accommodation. Peter wishes to thank Mike Hendry for his assistance. Bulletin, Vol. On the back, they re all practicality, providing information regarding opening hours and contact details. On the front, however, it s a bit more fun.
The images have been carefully chosen to bring a bit of the Library to life. The leader of the pack, of course, is the cover of the Wisden, referencing the birth year of the MCC Library, as well as one of the most treasured volumes in the collection.
The other three varieties of bookmark, however, are a bit more quirky, heading into the Library s children s collection for their source material. His output was diverse, covering everything from science fiction to boys own adventures. The Substitutes falls into this latter category, dealing with the controversy and machinations of a cricket game in coastal Salcombe Bay. Assorted rivalries are established early, along with a reminder that this book was published in , and that Old Guppy, who hires out boats on the beach, therefore resembles a South African bushman.
A couple of similar eyebrow raisers aside, most of the language is slightly archaic, albeit eminently readable. Unfortunately, there are seemingly few females in Salcombe Bay apart from the Wayne family matriarch; or if there are, they are frying the fish and laundering cricket whites. Mention is made of them summer gals as wears them beach pyjamas, but not much else. Of course, Guppy never obsequious - is the enemy of the Squire. Sir James Symes and his son Ronald are widely disliked by the local residents, and with Guppy winning an ancient battle over foreshore rights, the old fisherman and the gentry are at loggerheads.
This is bound to end in a contest, and what could be more fitting than a cricket game? Enter Dick Wayne and his reverend father. Relatively successful at cricket, young Symes struts about the district as if he imagined himself to be Don Bradman and Harold Larwood in one. What a combination, and given the recent nature of Bodyline at the time of publication what a dangerous idea. Moving along at a brisk pace, Captain Evans a Military Cross winner, and stalwart of the local cricket team enlists Dick, Joe and Ronald to take part in a match against Gladeham, a local side complete with Wansborough, the Cambridge Blue.
Dick is a capable batsman, Joe a handy bowler, and Ronald has success on his side. Dick is dubious about this, concerned that Ronald plays for himself more than his side. The scene is set for a memorable occasion, and one of the stars of the show is Joe Guppy, highly entertaining in his batting to help take Salcombe to However, the tenor changes when Ronald shows his true nature upon bowling, appealing for lbw every time he hits a batsman s pads, and sneering at the umpire, who happens to be the Reverend Wayne.
Ronald throws a temper tantrum when admonished, and leaves the field to hide at his father s side, whereupon the Squire threatens court action and associated mayhem. A man short, Salcombe s only remedy is to call for a substitute. Enter Old Guppy, who not only fields with his hat, but also takes the catch that turned the tide. With Joe collecting six wickets to take Salcombe to a nineteen-run victory, it is truly a special day for the locals. The scene is set for multiple fisticuffs, family reconciliations and realisation that boarding schools do not necessarily gentleman cricketers make.
With Ronald s Willingbury taking on Dick s Oakhurst, the story rumbles to an end courtesy of dying light, underarm bowling, another substitution twist and an unexpected six. Who wins? Suffice to say that good will always out, and that Ronald Symes, he of the bad attitude and ungentlemanly play, can be found, just a year later, rounding up sheep on a station in the heart of Tasmania. The Substitutes is an absorbing and atmospheric read, one for a quiet summer afternoon at local cricket, when everyone is behaving just as they should.
Chambers: London,  John Finnemore was a schoolmaster and author of many non-fiction and fiction works, including the Teddy Lester series, set in Slapton Public School at the start of the 20th century. School fiction tended to follow the common themes of friendship, loyalty, honour, sporting prowess and sportsmanship.
Class distinctions, racism, sexism, jingoism and cultural imperialism were also implicit, being symptomatic of the times. Teddy Lester s Schooldays ticks some of these boxes women are almost invisible, appearing as servants or shrieking wives of poachers, and the lower classes have small roles as villains, unless they are decent men in need of rescuing from danger.
On the other hand, two of the main characters are from minority groups - Ito Nagao being a little Jap, accompanied by the squinting, bespectacled stutterer, Jimmy The Bat West, who is cool and plucky, honest and straight. They, and their chum Teddy Lester, are all top sportsmen and are the idols of the school. Finnemore makes the point that West was not mocked or jeered. Teddy himself is jolly fond of a cheerful rag especially against the Bedlington Club a pale imitation of a Varsity club led by Cheriton - a conceited lad - who was destined to blossom into a fussy, conceited, and not very useful Member of Parliament.
Some of the most entertaining passages are when Cheriton is receiving his just dues from Teddy and his friends. Bullying, pomposity, lying and stealing are not to be tolerated! Much of the punishment corporal is meted out by prefects and senior students, though the whole House is involved in punishing one miscreant by forcing him to run the gauntlet.
Adults are mainly incidental to the plot useful when needed! There is never a dull moment at Slapton and the term is filled with rags, sporting events, including a very exciting rugger match where our heroes star, plenty of feasts a frequent occurrence, even though they do seem to be fed regular school meals , solving mysteries, preventing burglaries, as well as moments of great danger when Teddy and his chums use all their resourcefulness to rescue the two gamekeepers from certain death at the hands of angry poachers.
Teddy, Ito and The Bat are certainly not saints as they frequently steal off out of bounds to go ferreting, buy supplies at the shop for the next feast , get to the bottom of problems, or just generally explore and find ways of thwarting the Bedlington Club. Schoolwork barely rates a mention and there don t appear to be any teachers other than Housemasters and the Principal. This is a highly entertaining and amusing read, and I can just imagine a group of young boys begging their teacher to tell them another one of his stories about Teddy Lester and his chums.
Left: Teddy Lester s Schooldays included six coloured plates by William Rainey, the first of which is left and titled, Teddy is confronted with the words The thief is Lester! It was one sided and all opening times and contact details were on the front.
The introduction of eight digit local phone numbers in , and a fax machine at the MCC Library necessitated the introduction of a new bookmark. The card was still one sided and had the Library s details printed over a faded image of Bill Ponsford a MCC great and an inaugural Australian Cricket Hall of Fame inductee in The Ponsford family have been great supporters of the Library.
The MCC Library was closed from until With the introduction of a club website and a Library address another bookmark was required for its reopening in the new pavilion. The issue on the spine , refers to the foundation year of the Library. The MCC Library bookmark was also two sided with all contact and hours of opening details on the back. The bookmark design has proved very popular. When the general Library bookmark was updated in , to include the Library s social media accounts, the design on the front was retained.
Gorman, Ethel Talbot, et al. This collection covers all of the typical targets, from Girl Guides to distant, rich grandfathers; from cattle rustling the wrongdoers naturally being nabbed by a young slip of a lass to the normal dramas of boarding school life. Whether it s a looming first aid exam, where little skinny Joyce fails on the day but goes on to save the doctor from a car crash, or tennis matches and trips to Egypt, adventure awaits every young lady involved in these often captivating, often amusing stories.
The language used is one of the main ingredients for mirth, with old thing a favourite of every contributing author, and rotten luck predominating for the always daring main characters who turn out to be superb explorers, drivers and pilots despite falling foul of authority. One of the unexpected features of the collection is a story with an Australian focus The Kangaroo Hunt.
Set on a large rural property, its portrayal of the local indigenous population is typical of the era. It s an unfortunate stretch for drama in a story that does provide a sense of the amazing setting in which the station is located, albeit showing the security of the passion flower shaded veranda as opposed to the not so great outdoors.
Of course, all good books should finish with puzzles, and this volume does not disappoint. If you have a spare couple of hours to apply your mind to draught and geometric puzzles, this is the place for you. Once again, the fact that this is a s publication is brought home by the use of one of the symbols challenging readers to make it into a square. Described as a cabalistic sign in effect, secret or mysterious to a modern audience it immediately appears as a swastika.
The Bumper Book For Girls, then, is as intriguing as it is entertaining; as inadvertently educational as it is a little time travel machine, and well worth the read, albeit with 21st century expectations held somewhat in check. She has published extensively on sport and the Melbourne Football Club in particular. A Yorker-themed bookmark was created to celebrate the Yorker winning the International Sports Heritage Association s communication award for programs, annual reports, magazines nicknamed The ISHY.
The banner on the bookmark was from issue 45, Spring Further success in the following two years enabled the Yorker to complete a hat-trick of ISHY wins. The MCC Library received another one in , for the design layout of our online catalogue. This book contains the oldest known publication of the word cricket.
Collateral for the exhibition included a special edition of the Yorker, and two themed bookmarks. One bookmark featured the title page of Cotgrave s dictionary, while another had a page from an eighteenth century book. In then MCC Archivist Patricia Downs won a contest at a records management convention for a retractable banner for the archives.
GPD was called upon once again to design the banner. Patricia and the librarians were so impressed with the design, that to promote the MCC Archives and to publicise public access, it was used as the front of a bookmark. This was distributed both by the archivist and also at the MCC Library reference desk. In the deletion of our fax number and the Library s expansion into social media required the creation of new bookmarks. While the classic design was retained, the opportunity was taken to produce three more colourful designs to promote the historic children s collection.
The use of old book spines in the design of bookmarks had proved popular at other libraries. With this in mind deputy librarians Deborah Schrader and Trevor Ruddell, chose three decorative spines as the basis for the children s bookmarks. Each represented a different sport - cricket, netball, and football in this particular case rugby as antiquarian English children s books are more readily accessible than those published in Australia.
When you enter the ground you may pass through the Cordner family entrance, opened in The founding father of the Cordner family in Australia was Henry Cordner who was born on 26 February, , in Lisburn, County Antrim, Ireland. Their children Harry and Ted, their grandchildren Ted, Donald, Denis, and John, their great grandson David and their great great granddaughter Harriet have all played football at the highest level.
When Edward James Cordner moved to Melbourne from Bendigo, and two of his sons excelled at football and cricket, he developed an interest in sport administration, becoming University Football Club vice president, a club delegate to the Victorian Football League and a member of the Melbourne Cricket Club committee from until Above: Brothers John, Donald and Ted Cordner, outside the Cordner entrance of the third Members Pavilion.
The member s entrance of the redeveloped Members Stand was similarly named after the Cordner family. Nevertheless, it is important to recognize the significant contribution made to the Melbourne Cricket Club by this family sporting dynasty. Died 14 November Hobart, Tas. He was educated at Melbourne Grammar School where he was Head of the School in Harry Cordner played one match with Melbourne in and ten matches in when, as a forward, he led the team s goalscorers with 16 goals and represented Victoria against New South Wales.
Following the University team s entry into the Victorian Football League in , he played 29 games and kicked seven goals with the Students in and He captained the side in 15 games in The Argus explained that: As a centre player he regards that position as the pivot on which the work of the side depends. Died 21 July Greensborough, Vic.
Ted Cordner was captain of Melbourne Grammar School in and A versatile sportsman, he was the youngest brother of Harry. Aged 17 years he appeared with Melbourne in in two games. In and he played with University in the Metropolitan Football Association and, with his brother Harry, was a member of the premiership teams in those two seasons. Following the Students entry into the Victorian Football League, he played from until in 60 games, kicking eight goals.
A centre half- back, he was regularly among the Students best players. He was the club vice-captain in and Ted Cordner was popular with fans, scoring well in public polls. He was also actively involved in the school s cadet corps. Recruited from Warrnambool, he played three matches with Geelong in seasons and He then joined Collingwood in and , recording 20 games and two goals. Alan Cordner was 6ft cm tall and weighed 12st 8lb 80kg ; he was a solid defender either at full back or in the back pocket.
Alan, at the time, worked as a clerk in the stove department of the Metropolitan Gas Company. The newspaper Winner explained, ever since the original landing at Gallipoli he has been reported missing. A letter of sympathy was ordered to be sent to the parents of Alan Cordner and his photograph was ordered to be placed in the committee room.
Died 11 July Penshurst, Vic. Larry Cordner was the half-brother of Alan Cordner. His father, Isaiah Joseph Joe Cordner, had remarried after the death of his first wife. Cordner was a right arm leg break and googly bowler and late order batsman.
He kicked one goal but Hawthorn were defeated by Collingwood at Glenferrie Oval. After injuring an ankle in that match his employer forced him to choose between football and work and he opted for the latter. In working life, Larry Cordner was a stock agent working in various locations such as Newmarket and Sale. Ted Cordner was the eldest of the four brothers who played with Melbourne. He was educated at Melbourne Grammar School where he excelled academically and was cricket captain, football vice-captain, athlete and boxer.
Ted was a premiership player with University Blacks in , the same season he represented Victoria at amateur level. At Melbourne he played from to and in in 52 games 0 goals. In his first year, , he was among the Demons best players in their premiership win against Essendon. His last season in saw him play nineteen games and represent Victoria against South Australia.
Many critics considered he would have won the Brownlow Medal in , but the award was in recess because of the war. His VFL career was interrupted by war service. He rose to the rank of Surgeon Lieutenant. Dr Ted P. Cordner had a 40 year active association with the Alfred Hospital and from to was an assistant physician at the Austin Hospital.
He was devoted to his medical practice at Greensborough. Died 13 June Point Lonsdale, Vic. Donald Cordner attended Melbourne Grammar School for ten years from to as a boarder and then as a day boy till He studied medicine at Melbourne University and gained a Blue for football. In he was a member of the undefeated University Under 19 team. He debuted with Melbourne in the second semi-final victory against Carlton. His second match was the Grand Final victory against Essendon.
The Brownlow Medal award was reintroduced in , following a wartime break from Playing as an amateur, Donald Cordner won the award with 20 votes. Tall and sleek at 6ft 2in cm and weighing 14st 4lb He played with the Demons from to in games and kicked 23 goals.
He was team captain in and In he skippered the team against Essendon in the drawn grand final and to the premiership the following week. After retirement as a player, he was a member of the Melbourne Football Club match committee and and the Victorian Football League Tribunal. Dr Donald Cordner served on the Melbourne Cricket Club committee from until He was president from until his retirement in Cordner was instrumental in the removal of long-standing restrictions on club membership for women.
He was a great advocate and supporter of the MCC Library, helping to rejuvenate it. He was particularly proud of his service to the Diamond Creek community where he was the local GP for 46 years, delivering babies over the journey. Died:- 17 October Kew, Vic. Educated at Melbourne Grammar School, Denis Cordner was a versatile sportsman, an athlete, cricketer and footballer.
Denis went on to kick two goals. At Melbourne University he gained Blues for cricket and football, and also a half Blue for athletics. Then, with only one VFL match to his credit, he was part of one of football s most audacious gambles when Melbourne brought him back to the grand final side He played at centre half-back in the drawn grand final against Essendon and the premiership victory the following week. This was influential in changing the second ruck s role to a more mobile ruck rover.
Denis Cordner was Melbourne s Best and Fairest winner in and and finished second in four other seasons. He was the Demons best vote-getter in the Brownlow Medal on eight occasions, registering 93 votes overall, and was Melbourne s leading goalscorer in At Melbourne he played in and from to in games and kicked 82 goals.
He was captain of the Demons from to and a member of the , and premiership teams. He represented Victoria on eight occasions. He worked in Australia, New Zealand and England as an industrial chemist, and as a managing director and chairman of various companies. He played six games 0 goals , his brother Denis being the Demons captain at the time.
While working in England he played for county team Warwickshire against the Indian tourists in He was a gifted nuclear scientist and industrial chemist who worked in both England and Australia. He also served on a number of boards.
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