Low volatility investing revisited nina
In both cases stocks with low volatility outperformed stocks with high volatility. nina equity index futures, and 13 government bond futures. As low-quality ICOs increase in number on the market, the lemon market will eventually squeeze out all current and potential investors. Therefore, in order to. David Backus & Nina Boyarchenko & Mikhail Chernov, "Term structures of asset prices and returns," Working Papers , New York University. BEST LEGAL BETTING SITES
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We content ourselves by listing a few, differentiating between effects with fixed and variable directionality:. In addition, Heston and Sadka note that exploiting the seasonality of returns requires trading strategies with high turnover, so transaction costs become an important consideration.
Swinkels and van Vliet find that the Halloween and turn-of-month effects render the January, weekend and holiday effects redundant. Keloharju et al. Heston et al. Lou et al. Given the vast literature on empirical asset pricing in the stock markets, it is perhaps surprising how small the literature is in the corporate bond markets the paucity of high-quality data is certainly partly responsible.
Fama and French use measures of the term premium and credit spreads as factors to explain the returns of portfolios of US government and corporate bonds. Interest in the topic has latterly been reignited, and we mention three recent contributions that construct and test multiple factors. But first, we consider why corporate bonds might need a different set of factors than equities. Israel et al. Houweling and van Zundert present four dynamic factors of corporate bonds both long-only and long-short versions of each :.
In this case, the authors use firm characteristics previously used to select stocks to select instead corporate bonds:. Brooks et al. Although much of the empirical asset pricing literature has been focused on stocks, more generalised approaches have been proposed to apply style investing across asset classes.
Moskowitz et al. Their principal momentum signal is the sign of the trailing month return of an asset. They find a positive gross Sharpe ratio from time-series momentum in every single asset. They also find that a cross-asset time-series momentum strategy is closely related to a cross-sectional ranking cousin, but that it is not fully captured by the cross-sectional approach. Given that they find high returns for value and momentum strategies, but a negative correlation between them, it is natural to consider them together.
The authors consider four regional equity markets US, UK, Europe and Japan , and four asset classes country equity indices, government bonds, currencies and commodities. The momentum measure they consider is the asset price return over the past 12 months, skipping the most recent month. Skipping the most recent month avoids the stock reversal effect documented by Jegadeesh Skipping has a negative impact for some asset classes, but was applied unilaterally for consistency. The value measures used vary by asset class:.
Cross-sectional value and momentum factors are constructed for each stock region and asset class using a weighted ranking approach dollar-neutral. Koijen et al. The relationship of carry to value and momentum varies across asset classes. In equities, carry is positively related to value. In fixed income and commodities, carry is positively related to momentum. Across the US Treasury curve, in currencies, in credit and in index options, carry is unrelated to either value or momentum.
However, despite any relationships between styles, the authors find that carry returns cannot be completely explained by value and momentum. The the carry measures used by asset class are:. For most of the analysis, portfolios are formed within asset classes using a weighted ranking method dollar-neutral.
Time-series strategies are also considered where a long or short position is taken in an asset dependent on the sign of its carry. In either case, carry is found to predict returns across asset classes. However, in times of global recession or liquidity crisis, carry returns can be poor across asset classes.
As mentioned earlier, Frazzini and Pedersen construct low-beta factors across asset classes. As well as US single stocks, they consider international single stocks pooled and by country , US Treasury bonds across maturities, country equity indices, country bond indices, credit indices by maturity and by rating , commodities and currencies. Factors are formed on a beta-neutral basis. They consider both single stocks and industries within the US, the UK, Europe and Japan; 16 country equity indices; 16 currencies; six government bond futures; five interest rate futures; and eight commodity futures.
The authors construct value, momentum, carry and defensive factors across asset classes, and emphasize their high returns and diversification benefits. The factor style characteristics they use can be summarised as:. Baltussen et al. The authors are particularly interested in checking the robustness of style factors using out-of-sample data, with a view to assessing whether p-hacking influenced their original proposals.
The investment styles analysed are time-series momentum, cross-sectional momentum, value, carry, seasonality and low-beta. The asset classes considered are equity indices, government bonds, commodities and currencies. The authors find evidence supporting most of the style factors. They found little performance decay between their replication sample and out-of-sample periods.
They also found that factor returns were present across macroeconomic regimes, and could not be explained by macroeconomic risk. Baz et al. The investment styles considered are value, carry and momentum, while the asset classes are equity indices 26 , currencies 31 , commodity futures 16 and interest rate swaps For cross-sectional factors, within an asset class, assets are ranked by their style measures, and long positions are taken in the top six assets versus short positions in the bottom six.
The authors find that: a value worked well in cross section, but poorly in time series; b carry worked well in both cross section and time series; and c momentum worked poorly in cross section, but well in time series. Some of these strategies are typical examples of negatively skewed strategies: for example, currency carry and short volatility.
They find a negative relationship between the Sharpe ratios of the strategies and their skewness. Time-series momentum provides an interesting outlier, generating significant returns, but with positive skewness.
The authors also mention the potential to diversify away some of the skewness by combining strategies. We briefly touch upon some factors that have been proposed to explain the returns of hedge funds. Fung and Hsieh offer a 7-factor model. The authors have been a driving force behind the academic analysis of hedge-fund and CTA returns. This paper draws from several earlier studies, many by the same authors.
Their focus is on hedge-fund indices and funds of hedge funds, which justifies their use of a broad range of factors, since these indices include — for example — equity long-short funds, CTAs and fixed-income hedge funds. Their chosen factors are:. Regressions of hedge-fund indices on these factors are shown to have high R 2 values. Note that look-back options are not commonly traded, and so the straddles may be difficult to trade or replicate in practice.
The choice of corporate spreads rather than corporate bond excess returns also complicates the interpretation of the results. Harvey et al. To aid the comparison, they adjust hedge-fund returns for exposures to factors that were already well known at the start of their sample They are careful to choose factors that are readily tradeable.
These are the eight factors, which the authors label as traditional, dynamic or volatility:. Overall, discretionary and systemic investors are found to have generated similar risk-adjusted performance, with some evidence that discretionary managers are more likely to load on the risk factors. The central difficulty of factor identification is distinguishing between true risk premia or mispricings from the spurious. Lo and MacKinley describe biases introduced in the test statistics commonly computed in the asset pricing literature, and warn:.
The author posed a series of questions that required answering in multifactor pricing models:. Which are subsumed by others? Second, does each new anomaly variable also correspond to a new factor formed on those same anomalies? Do accruals return strategies correspond to an accruals factor?
We should routinely look. Third, how many of these new factors are really important? Can we account for accruals return strategies by betas on some other factor, as with sales growth? Now, factor structure is neither necessary nor sufficient for factor pricing. And big common movements, such as industry portfolios, need not correspond to any risk premium.
There always is an equivalent single-factor pricing representation of any multifactor model: The mean-variance efficient portfolio return is the single factor. Still, the world would be much simpler if betas on only a few factors, important in the covariance matrix of returns, accounted for a larger number of mean characteristics.
Fourth, eventually, we have to connect all this back to the central question of finance: Why do prices move? McLean and Pontiff revisit 97 firm characteristics presented in the asset pricing literature as explaining the cross-section of stock returns. Smart beta investing combines the benefits of passive investing and the advantages of active investing strategies. The goal of smart beta is to obtain slightly higher returns than broad market indices and increase diversification at a cost lower than traditional actively managed mutual funds.
One such popular smart beta strategy is based on the concept of low volatility investing. In this blog, we will examine the pros and cons of low volatility investing. What Is Low Volatility? Volatility denotes the upward or downward movement of the stock market or an individual stock.
This means low volatility can be described as security, asset, or fund whose value changes at a steady pace over a period of time, instead of fluctuating dramatically. Here is the low-down on this index. As the name suggests, the index selects 30 securities from within the NIFTY companies based on their volatility.
In a nutshell, here is how the stock selection is done. Firstly, all the stocks in the NIFTY index with a minimum listing history of 1 year are selected.
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