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The ranges are the same as those used by EPA to define air quality good, moderate, unhealthy for sensitive groups, unhealthy, very unhealthy and the col- ors are the same as those used on EPA's AirNow Web site. As mentioned previously, two types of maps are available for ozone: a map showing hourly average levels across northeast Ohio see Figure and an animated map showing levels for the previous 24 hours. Time-relevant data are also presented in a table summarizing monitoring station data, as shown in Figure Non-ozone pollutant concentrations are sampled once per day, since they do not change as significantly over the course of a day as ozone.

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These other forms of public outreach and health risk communication are discussed in Chapter 4. Good working relations and communication are especially important to an organization that is involved in only certain aspects of the data flow, rather than being in control of the data it needs. Without good communication, timely access to the data to be reported to the public e. The Workgroup was organized into a coordination committee and an advisory committee; the Earth Day Coalition EDC was designated the lead organization for outreach.

The Workgroup seeks to publicize the availability of the Northeast Ohio Project's air quality and urban sprawl data and products to the greater Cleveland-Akron community, enabling citizens to make informed decisions on day-to-day environmental and health concerns that can affect their quality of life. To create a successful outreach campaign, the Communications Workgroup conducted a survey of northeast Ohio residents to determine their information needs, knowledge level, and means of gathering information.

This questionnaire was used, for example, to assess the public's computer knowledge and pat- terns of computer use and determine how to best present information to the target audience of low-income and minority communities. It was important to learn which communication outlets other than computers the target audience used, so that key information could be conveyed to community members who were not computer literate.

The survey questions are in Appendix A. The Communications Workgroup followed up with respondents and other participants at six in-depth community meetings. Survey results were compiled and analyzed, and a report distributed to the Project steering committee. The level of awareness of ozone issues, including Ozone Action Days, was quite low with less than 40 percent of the population aware , and knowledge of the health impacts of ozone was very low less than 8 percent.

TABLE The community survey described in Section 4. The survey results gave the project important information on how best to educate the public on air quality issues and also introduced the concept of air quality to this audience. Outreach efforts that followed the survey are discussed below. Therefore, a medical brochure entitled Your Air, Your Health, Your Environment: News You Can Use was produced to provide the general public with information on air pollution and its effects in northeast Ohio.

The brochure, featuring a picture of a doctor and child on the cover Figure , discusses the six criteria air pollutants lead, PM, ground- level ozone, CO, SO2, and NO2 , who is most at risk from air pollution, and how to find out about daily air quality levels.

Resources for more information, including the Northeast Ohio Project's Web site, are listed in the brochure. The handbook Figure includes approximately 85 pages of background information, activities, experi- ments, lesson plans, and resources on air pollution, air quality, and the Northeast Ohio Project.

Teachers reviewed drafts of the handbook during its development. EDC members used the handbooks to conduct training at camps and recreation centers. Example handbook activities include an air quality flashcard game with cut-out vocabulary cards provided, experiments incorporating observation and math skills through data collection and analysis, and activities related directly to the NEOAIR Web site.

The handbook indicates appropriate grade levels for each activity or experiment, along with educator notes that refer to background information. EDC produced and distributed about copies of the air quality handbook. The air quality handbook was very well received in the education community. School principals were enthusiastic about bringing the air quality educational program to their schools because air pollution-related health problems e.

Teachers were enthusiastic about free classroom presentations and educational materials. Many schools requested additional copies. Medical brochure developed by the Northeast Ohio Project. Also popular among children were activities involving the Internet. Environmental games worked well as a communications tool for camp children. A handbook and a Web site are two key communication tools used by the Northeast Ohio Project to communicate urban sprawl issues, as discussed below.

The design of this handbook is similar to that of the air quality handbook. Teachers reviewed and commented on drafts of the urban sprawl handbook before EDC finalized it. The sprawl outreach and education efforts focused on Cuyahoga County. This is because Cuyahoga contains Cleveland, the biggest city in northeast Ohio and the one for which the most local, relevant information e.

Using this informa- tion, EDC was able to include examples and activities directly related to the city in the handbook. A sample activity from the urban sprawl handbook is a role-playing activity in which a fictional growth scenario "You live in a small community where a developer would like to put a shopping mall" is presented and students are assigned various roles within a community.

One role might be that of a local shop owner who does not want additional commercial competition; another might be that of a town official who would like to bring additional money and tourists to the area. The students play out the scenario, learning that there is not nec- essarily a right or wrong solution to the situation and that sprawl is a complicated issue.

See Chapter 2 for a discussion of the Simulator. As with the air quality handbook, copies of the sprawl handbook were produced. Due to limited funds for outreach, EDC will not be going into schools to conduct educational programs on sprawl, but is still planning teacher meetings to introduce educators to both handbooks. For example, EDC met with teachers from "gifted and talented" programs in 15 to 20 schools in Cuyahoga County in February This Web site provides an overview of issues related to sprawl and includes background on the usefulness and creation of urban growth models.

It also links to the Urban Growth Simulator, through which users can view different potential growth scenarios for their community. See Chapter 2 for more information on urban growth modeling and this Web site. Visit 5 our Jbsitc! The media cam- paign included bus boards, PSAs, news releases, development of a logo and mascot, a promotional brochure, and a Web site, as described below.

Abee is described in Section 4. While ultimately successful, bus board development took longer than expected. The Communications Workgroup learned that it is important to give transit authori- ties enough time 4 to 6 weeks to develop bus board programs. The PSAs were , , , and second versions of the same basic announcement, each describing the Project in a different degree of detail. Most of the stations carrying the PSAs were FM stations, but Cleveland's most popular station, an AM station that covers sports, also aired the announcements.

EDC originally planned to pro- duce this television announcement using a private vendor. All four networks offered to produce the com- mercial for free, but each wanted sole use of the commercial. It took about 1 day to film the PSA's segments and 1 day to edit them into a single announcement. The interviews lasted about 5 to 6 minutes and were also shown throughout the summer. The second interview included Abee, the mascot.

An additional 20 major print publications and TV stations received copies via postal mail. The releases announced the Northeast Ohio Project's Web site and information provided by the project; the Regional Transit Authority bus board campaign; the school outreach programs; and Abee, the Northeast Ohio Project mascot.

Bus board displayed on Cleveland-Akron transit authority buses. Logo developed for the Northeast Ohio Project. Abee appeared on local television stations, at schools, and at EarthFest , where she greeted dignitaries such as the Secretary of Health and Human Services and a congressman. The mascot was also promi- nently featured in each of the educational handbooks. She also appeared often along with the logo on magnets, t-shirts, and a hand stamp, which were handed out at events such as EarthFest.

Abee helped create project recognition: people recognized her and associated the promotional materials with the Project after meeting her at community events. This color, glossy brochure describes various ways for people to obtain the information available on the Project's Web site. Approximately 25, brochures were pro- duced and distributed to county libraries, Northeast Ohio Project partners, universities, the Ohio Department of Recreation, camps, schools, and transit authorities participating in the bus board program.

The Project's Web site is hosted on a local server, the Neighborhood Link. It was designed pro bono by the firm Luttner and Yachannin Advertising. Note that the Web site is available at all Cleveland public libraries, recreation centers, and neighborhood computer centers.

The Northeast Ohio Project's Abee mascot. The Workgroup used the community survey see Section 4. As a direct result of those findings, bus boards were placed on the routes identified as hotspots or environmental justice neighborhoods likely to include the target audience. Results from the survey also showed that target populations are very trusting of the medical community and get most of their health information from hospitals, doctors, and health organizations.

Therefore, the Communications Health Workgroup developed a medical brochure see Section 4. Thus the initial survey helped the Project increase its credibility for community members. The success of the educational programs was fairly easy to determine by the enthusiastic response from both schools and camps. The original plan was to conduct the program in four schools. Due to the program's popularity, however, EDC ended up running it in eight schools, plus recreation centers and camps, reaching more than 1, children aged 9 to Teachers and camp counselors are still requesting the return of the program and speakers.

Unfortunately, funding is currently unavailable to run the program. The handbooks are available, however, and teachers continue to use them. Teachers commented that they would like to see more programs like the air quality program. It was this response that encouraged EDC to create the urban sprawl handbook. When EDC approached educators about reviewing that handbook, the teachers were eager to participate and provide comments.

The Northeast Ohio Project's Web site received its maximum number of "hits" visits to the site when the media and Regional Transit Authority bus board outreach were being conducted, indicating that these cam- paigns were successful.

Since that time, hits have declined somewhat. The Workgroup's diversity produced some differences of opinion about what specifically should be communicated. The group therefore spent time, before launching the outreach campaign, coming to a common decision on a clear message.

Designating a lead organi- zation to develop ideas and present them to the group also helped create consistency and stability. The topic of urban sprawl may be more appropriate for older students, but EDC was mandated to develop a single handbook targeted to the same grade levels as those covered by the air quality handbook.

Furthermore, teachers felt that while sprawl is a difficult concept for children, it is a worthwhile topic to explore. When communicating innovative topics, emphasizing key concepts that may not be intuitive can be impor- tant. For example, for the topic of urban sprawl, it was important to convey that sprawl can and often does occur in areas of no or low population growth e. The concept that land use for development is outpacing population growth may be a difficult but important one for many people includ- ing children to grasp.

For instance, EDC found that developing relationships with schools and camps was an effective outreach strategy. When plan- ning your project, consider developing materials in more than one language, especially if your audience is multiethnic. The Project's urban growth model provides a tool for examining the environmental impacts of sprawl such as increased traffic, which contributes to unhealthy air pollutant levels and identifies possible growth scenar- ios that communities can implement to reduce such impacts.

Urban sprawl and its ecological and human health effects make up a rapidly growing and changing field of study. A Web search on "urban sprawl" will reveal numerous articles and sites about this topic on local and national scales. The Northeast Ohio Project's near-real-time measurements of regional air quality let residents know when air quality is poor; people can then choose to avoid or minimize certain activities that may increase their health risk on days with poor air quality.

Finally, the numerous communications and outreach materials developed by the Project, such as Web sites, brochures, and logos, successfully inform area residents of the urban growth modeling tools and air quality information available through the Northeast Ohio Project.

Communities in other areas of the country may want to consider developing similar regional programs. Dan epamail. Stephen epamail. Does your child or someone in your family have a persistent cough? DYes I No Are you currently getting medical help?

Yes QNo Does anyone in your family have other breathing problems? What are the symptoms? Q Yes D No Are you currently getting medical help? Q Yes Q No How aware are you? How good is the air in your neighborhood? In your opinion, is there a link between air pollution and your family's health? Yes No Specific comments: In your opinion, is there a link between indoor air pollution and your family's health?

Where do you get information about community issues? How often do you talk to your doctor, clinic, or health professional? What are your sources of general information? Yes No Where? Do you use the Internet for medical or other information? Yes No Would you like to get day-to-day information on outdoor air quality? Yes 3 No In what form should we give it to you e. If we brought outdoor air quality information to you to help you better predict your asthma attacks, would your activities and quality of life change?

Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation of their use. Daniel Murray and Carolyn Wieland, U. Environmental Protection Agency U. What are the best ways to communicate current water quality conditions to the public?

This handbook provides information on how to design and implement a time- relevant water quality monitoring program for beaches and other recreational waters. The handbook is intended for people who are considering developing a recreational water quality monitoring program for their community or wish to enhance their existing program. The handbook follows the three case study projects through the design and implementation of their time- relevant recreational water quality monitoring programs, the development of management and delivery systems for water quality data, and the creation and implementation of public notification and risk com- munication programs.

Its goals were to improve public health and environmental protection programs for beachgoers and provide the public with information about the quality of their beach water. The BEACH Program has focused on strengthening beach standards and testing, providing faster laboratory test methods, predicting pollution, investing in health and methods research, and inform- ing the public about water quality and any associated health risks.

EPA, , developed as a strategy for accomplishing the goals of the BEACH Program, identified EPA activities that would enable consistent management of recreational water quality programs and improve the science that supports recreational water monitoring programs. The Act requires states and tribes that have coastal recreational waters to adopt new or revised water quality standards for pathogens and pathogen indi- cators for which EPA has published water quality criteria, and requires that EPA promulgate new or revised standards for states and tribes that fail to do so.

EPA BEACH Program activities have included conducting conferences with federal, state, and local authorities to identify the needs of recreational water quality programs; helping states and tribes adopt updated water quality criteria for E. EPA, , also known as the Beach Guidance Document, to help states develop and implement their beach monitoring and public notification programs.

Table Through this project, the partner groups expanded their existing efforts to provide the public with timely information about water quality conditions in the Charles River and at Boston Harbor beaches. Through the "Beachhealth" project, people in Wisconsin can learn about daily water qual- ity conditions at beaches in the Milwaukee and Racine areas throughout the swimming season. This project provides time-relevant water quality and safety information for seven licensed bathing facilities in the Upper Narragansett Bay in Rhode Island.

Through effective manage- ment of these beaches, the Rhode Island Department of Health sought to develop a pilot project to minimize public health risks associated with swimming at all Rhode Island beaches. The Project sampled a number of other sites to determine whether water quality would support licensing additional beaches in the area in the future.

Section 2. Implement a water quality monitoring program to collect and analyze time- relevant beach and recreational water quality data Chapter 4. Develop and implement a data management system to manage and deliver time- relevant water quality data Chapters. Create and imple- ment a public notification and risk communica- tion program to inform the public of potential health risks Chapter 6.

The examples include successful approaches that you might want to consider in developing your own programs, as well as references to additional sources of information such as Web sites and guid- ance documents. It then describes time-relevant water quality moni- toring and some key factors to consider when designing a time-relevant monitoring program. Lastly, it discusses the stated goals and objectives of each of the three case study projects.

For each of the case study programs, the chapter discusses the design, use, and maintenance of data manage- ment systems and the mechanisms used to deliver data to the public via the Internet. The chapter discusses the methods used by the three case study projects for public notification and presents the steps needed to create and implement a comprehensive outreach plan for public notification.

Q: How is a time-relevant water quality monitoring program different from a conventional beach monitoring program? A: A time-relevant water quality monitoring program seeks to reduce the time needed to analyze water quality samples as well as the time it takes to notify recreational water users of any health risks associated with current water quality conditions.

Alternative analysis methods, predictive modeling, and innovative and quick methods of distributing sample results to the public are some of the ways in which time-rele- vant programs achieve their goals. In contrast, conventional water quality monitoring programs are often driven by the relatively long time it takes to obtain results using traditional methods of sample analysis and may not emphasize new and quicker ways to get information to the public.

Q: What are the benefits of designing and implementing a time-relevant recreational water quality monitoring program? A: Exposure to recreational waters contaminated with bacteria, viruses, or other disease-causing organisms can result in a variety of illnesses e. Time- relevant water quality monitoring and reporting can help reduce the period of time in which people are potentially exposed to high levels of these waterborne organisms. In addition, since bacteria exceedances are often transient events, time-relevant monitoring allows water quality managers to reopen or unpost these waters sooner.

Q: Can my existing data management system be used for a time-relevant water quality monitoring program? A: Yes, most existing data management systems can be used for time-relevant monitoring projects. A system can be used if it includes the basic components needed to manage and communicate the data, including a data storage and retrieval system, a data delivery system, and procedures for quality assurance, quality control, and data security.

An information systems specialist can help you to determine what your exist- ing system can do and how to modify it, if necessary, to meet real-time project requirements. Q: What are some good ways to tell the public about recreational water quality and associated health risks? A: Some quick, effective methods are: placing flags at beaches and other key locations that indicate whether the water quality on a particular day is acceptable for swimming, boating, etc.

See Chapter 6 for more discussion of these and other methods. It is often useful to include several of these methods in your program to reach a larger number of people. The ultimate goals are to protect public health from potential health risks associated with use of these waters, and to notify members of the public who use these waters of any potential risks. This chapter first presents an overview of health concerns and of beach and recreational water quality monitoring Section 3.

Section 3. These organisms, called pathogens, usually come from the feces of humans and other warm-blooded animals. If taken into the body, pathogens can cause various illnesses and, on rare occasions, even death. Waterborne illnesses include diseases resulting from bacterial infection such as cholera, salmonellosis, and gastroenteritis , viral infection such as infectious hepatitis, gastroenteritis, and intestinal diseases , and protozoan infections such as amoebic dysentery and giardiasis.

The most commonly monitored recreational water indicator organisms are fecal coliform, E. These bacteria are a subgroup of coliform bacteria that usually live in the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Fecal coliform was originally recommended in by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration the predecessor to EPA as an effective water quality indicator organism for beach and recreational waters.

It is thought to be a better indica- tor than total coliform of human or other warm-blooded species pathogens. Studies conducted in the s and s indicated that the presence of this organism showed less correlation to illnesses associated with swimming than does the presence of some other indicator organisms, including E.

These bacte- ria can become pathogenic when they contact tissues outside the intestinal tract, particularly the urinary and biliary tracts, lungs, peritoneum, and meninges. EPA currently recommends E. EPA, Enterococci are a type of fecal streptococcus bacteria that live in the intestinal tract of humans and some animals.

The risk to swimmers of contracting gastrointestinal illness appears to be predicted better by enterococci than by fecal coliform; EPA currently recommends enterococci as an indicator organism for both fresh and marine waters U.

Some of the practices described in these projects may not be consistent with current regulatory requirements and guidance. For updated regulatory and guidance information, see Chapter 1, Section 1. Bacteria are one of the most common single-celled microorganisms. Many types of bacteria are found in recreational waters.

Some types of bacteria can be beneficial, while other types, including fecal coliform, salmonella, staphylococcus, and E. Fecal waste from warm-blooded animals including humans is a key source of bacteria found in water bodies. Bacteria in recreational waters can often be successfully eliminated or reduced to levels associated with relatively low health risks through chemical disinfection treatments, such as chlorination or ozonation of wastewater before it enters the surface water in the beach area.

Viruses are submicroscopic infectious agents that require host cells in which to live. Many of the viruses affecting water quality and human health originate in the gastrointestinal tracts of infected animals including humans and are then released to the environment in fecal wastes. Examples of some of the more common waterborne, disease-causing viruses include hepatitis A, rotaviruses, Norwalk-type viruses, adenoviruses, and enteroviruses.

Viruses are more resistant than bacteria to conventional water treatment such as chlorination. Treatments such as ultraviolet light and ozonation are more effective than chlorination in treating viruses. Protozoa are single-celled organisms that live primarily in the aquatic environment.

Some disease-causing protozoa exist in the environment as cysts that hatch, grow, and multiply after ingestion, causing illness. Two disease-causing, waterborne protozoa of major concern are Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium. Like viruses, protozoa are more resistant to conventional treatment such as chlorination. Ingesting water containing bacteria, viruses, or protozoa is the most common route of human exposure to these microorganisms.

A key factor in the successful treatment of these microbes is allowing adequate contact time with the disinfecting agent. Certain physical and chemical conditions e. Also, combined sewer overflow CSO pipes may discharge into a recreational water body during rainfall events, releasing excess discharges of storm water and sanitary wastewater into the environment with little or no treatment. Sanitary sewer overflows SSOs , which are occasional unintentional discharges of raw sewage, are another potential source of pathogens in recreational water bodies.

In areas with separate storm-water and sanitary-sewer systems, both storm-water discharges and SSOs can carry high bacteria levels. Other point sources of potential water contamination include discharge pipes from businesses that adjoin water bodies. Nonpoint-source discharges from poorly maintained or failing septic systems or other sources of groundwater contamination can also contribute to bacterial contamination of beach water.

While modern systems generally handle rainwater and sanitary wastewaters from homes and businesses in different pipes, some older systems have "combined" sewers that carry both rainwater and sewage flows. During normal conditions, the combined flows are delivered to treat- ment plants. During heavy rainfall, however, flows sometimes double and even triple. These combined systems are designed so that excess flows called combined sewer overflows or CSOs are released from outfalls along the system into water bodies with little or no prior treatment.

This overflow system prevents sewer backups into homes and onto area streets and also prevents overloading of the treatment plant, but it does so at consider- able cost to local water quality. A sanitary sewer system is meant to collect and transport all of the sewage that flows into it to a publicly owned treatment works. Occasionally, though, raw sewage is unintentionally discharged from municipal sani- tary sewers before it reaches the treatment works.

These discharges, called sanitary sewer overflows SSOs , occur in almost every system. SSOs have a variety of causes, including but not limited to infiltration and inflow of ground water and water from other sources, severe weather, improper system operation and maintenance, and vandalism. These discharges contaminate our waters, causing serious water quality problems. One problem with conventional beach and recreational water quality monitoring is the time lag between collecting water samples and providing the public with results.

This lag is due to the time it takes from 24 to 72 hours to analyze indicator organism levels. During this time, pathogen levels, weather, and water conditions may change, and related health risks may also change. Thus, authorities responsible for informing and protecting the public often must decide on beach and recreational water postings, closings, and re-openings using indicator organism data that reflect conditions as they were 1 to 3 days earlier.

This delay could be particularly problematic after certain events, such as a significant rain- storm or a sewage spill. Regulatory requirements that protect water quality and public health e. In addition, available resources and community involvement are important considerations for program design. These factors are discussed below. Your program objectives should support your goals of public health protection and public notification of health risks.

Thus objectives should identify how to effectively and quickly 1 monitor beaches and other recreational waters to determine whether water quality is sufficient to protect public health and 2 communicate health risks to those people who use or are otherwise impacted by area beach and recreational waters e. BETTING STARTED Program elements that support these objectives can include monitoring more frequently or at additional locations, using analytical methods that provide results sooner, using a predictive model to supplement monitoring and reduce time lags, and improving the public notification process.

These program elements are discussed in Chapters 4 and 6. Your program will be unique; you may decide to incorporate any or all of these or other elements. Water quality standards. These standards are at the core of each state's water quality management program. While standards may differ considerably from state to state, they must contain several key elements to be consistent with EPA regulations.

The first of these key elements is the iden- tification of designated uses for all waters. Another poten- tially important designated use relevant to public health is shellfish harvesting, which would result in direct human consumption of the shellfish. Some states designate uses through a class system Class A, B, or C , while other states specify the use e.

A second key element of water quality standards is the adoption of water quality criteria that must be met to support the designated uses. EPA publishes water quality criteria that guide the states in setting their own criteria, as required by the CWA Section EPA, recommended the use of E. In that document, EPA recommended that water quality criteria be based on geometric mean i. The criteria that EPA recommended for bacteria are shown in Table Check with your state environmental or public health agency to find out what water quality criteria your state has adopted.

A state's water quality criteria are used as the basis to close or post and reopen a beach. As discussed below, while many states still use fecal or total coliform as the basis for their water quality criteria, the BEACH Act requires that coastal states adopt criteria consistent with the EPA guidance by The water quality criteria used by the three projects highlighted in this handbook are discussed in Chapter 4, Table Other single- sample densities included in EPAs list of recommended criteria but not shown here may be selected if a reason exists to do so e.

A confidence level or interval is an estimate of the probability that an interval around the mean value contains the true mean value. Source: U. For example, in Massachusetts, beaches are managed and monitored based on the state public health code revised in to make it consistent with EPA requirements , which includes state water quality criteria. Local protocols may also be established to meet state codes and regulations. Beach management and monitoring in Rhode Island is based on state codes and regulations as well as beach open- ing and closure procedures established by the Rhode Island Department of Health and the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management.

In Wisconsin, the state issues a model beach ordinance, which municipalities may, but are not required to, use. The City of Milwaukee developed its own beach ordinance based on the state's model ordinance.

Geometric mean. The geometric mean values summarized in Table are based on specific levels of risk of acute gastrointestinal illness: no more than 8 illnesses per 1, swimmers for fresh water and no more than 19 illnesses per 1, swimmers for marine water U. EPA has determined that, when these water quality criteria are implemented in a conservative manner, they are protective for prevention of gastrointestinal illness resulting from primary contact recreation.

EPA recommends that at least five samples over a day period be taken to calculate the geometric mean. Single-sample maximum. Noncompliance can also be indicated by unacceptably high single-sample measurements. Single-sample maximum values can help determine whether to close or post a beach when a single-sample measurement shows a value that exceeds the single-sample maximum. The maximum for single samples is set higher than the geometric mean to prevent unnecessary closures based on a single sample.

Use of a single-sample maximum is also important because it is assumed that environmental conditions that can affect bacteria levels in water such as rainfall, wind, currents, tides, and temperature will vary temporally and spatially. Like the geometric mean, these single- sample maximums, summarized in Table , are based on specific levels of risk of acute gastroin- testinal illness: again, no more than 8 illnesses per 1, swimmers for fresh waters and no more than 19 illnesses per 1, swimmers for marine waters.

Funding and staffing constraints can limit the design of a water quality monitor- ing program. These resource limitations can impact when, where, and how often you monitor water quality and can also impact your public notification process. If resources are a limiting factor, consider having program partners administer your monitoring, data management, or notification program.

Other agencies or organizations involved in recreational water quality issues e. See the latter part of this chapter and Chapters 5 and 6 for more information on program partners. The design of a successful time-relevant water quality monitoring program should include public input regarding what people want and need to know about beach and recreational water quality and related health risks, as well as how they prefer to receive this information e.

Also, community members are often a valuable source of information about an area e. More detailed information on these projects is provided in later chapters. EPA, ; program managers should review these sources for current require- ments and recommendations. Project partners. The project was designed to expand the efforts of several partner organizations that have been working for a number of years to improve the water quality of Boston-area beaches and the Charles River.

The project enhanced these partners' ability to provide the public with time- relevant information about water quality conditions. The project design maximized the use of program partners for both monitoring and public noti- fication efforts. Outreach to the community and public input.

One example of this process is a public meeting, hosted by TBHA, that included a discussion by the program partners on water quality conditions during the beach season and efforts to provide the public with "real-time" informa- tion. Another example is another TBHA-hosted public workshop, during which comments were solicited from workshop participants. During these events, staff from TBHA and the MDC provide the public with in-depth infor- mation on water quality issues, the notification system, and access to online information on water quality conditions.

See Chapter 6 for a more detailed discussion of the public notification and risk communication efforts undertaken by all three of the case study projects. The project's design included consideration of which beaches were most at risk for public exposure to pathogens and increased data collection at those sites. These two beaches have historically been prone to elevated bacteria levels; according to historical monitoring data, both can have elevated pathogen levels after wet weather events.

The beaches are tested daily, Monday through Friday. The LPHAs also conduct daily testing on weekends during the beach season at beaches posted as unsafe due to potentially poor water quality. Other near-shore data are collected by the City of Milwaukee from the watershed twice weekly at three recreational sites. In addition, volunteer environmental monitoring is conducted at designated sites. To improve coordination and collaboration in the collection of environmental data by LPHAs, community stakeholders, and other organizations, MHD partnered with community environmental education organizations to form a near-shore volunteer monitoring program.

Nearly 50 volunteers were involved in the onsite water quality testing of 13 sites for nine scheduled monitoring events, as well as rainfall events during the summers of and Community input and outreach. For example, beachgoers at Milwaukee's South Shore Beach completed surveys, and the beach was posted with large advisory signs providing daily water quality data during the course of the project. These data can be queried and downloaded. Historical sources of contamination.

Sewage releases have caused use restrictions in large areas of the upper Narragansett Bay. While there are no state-licensed beach facilities within the permanently closed area, there are several beach areas that are used by the public as swimming areas. In addition, there are several licensed beaches that fall within the conditional areas, and primary contact activities, such as swimming, diving, and water skiing, occur in these conditional areas.

This occurrence of primary contact activities in areas with use restrictions is a public health concern and demonstrates the need to consider historical sources of contamination and spatial and temporal factors in a beach management program.

To address this public health issue, the Rhode Island Beaches Monitoring Project chose sampling sites that provided spatial coverage of the upper bay, including sites that were not licensed beaches; sampling at these unlicensed areas could help to determine whether water quality in these areas would support efforts to pursue beach licenses.

The results of the project sampling were used to confirm that the unlicensed sampling sites in upper Narragansett Bay are not suitable for becoming licensed public beach facilities at this time. Many of these sites display consistently poor water quality, exceeding the state standard more than 50 percent of the time. Standards and criteria used by the three case study projects are listed in Table and Table The water quality sampling conducted at licensed facilities in the northernmost regions of the bay found fluctuating water quality.

While these areas frequently displayed acceptable water quality and are suitable for primary use, the fluctuation demonstrates the need for frequent sampling at these sites. Information on historical water contamination at sites can contribute to the design and proper management of a water quality monitoring program by helping to determine where and how frequently monitoring is needed. More frequent monitoring may be needed at certain areas, even at some licensed beaches, based on prior history.

Also, beach program managers should check with state and local authorities to identify the regulatory requirements that apply to your program. Each of these considerations should be addressed ahead of time in a monitoring plan, which can be revised if needed.

This section also provides examples of monitoring considerations addressed by three case study projects. Decisions about what to monitor should be based on the uses of your beach and recreational waters, the applicable regulatory standards, and the questions and concerns raised by recreational water users. For example, are people primarily interested in whether it is safe to swim at a particular beach?

Are they also interested in whether it is safe to boat, fish, or dig clams in the area? The parameters to be monitored and their levels of acceptable health risk should be chosen to answer such questions. As described in Chapter 3, water bodies need to meet criteria set by state water quality standards, which apply to existing and desig- nated uses for specific waters, such as primary contact recreation e.

See Chapter 3 for a discussion of designated uses and state water quality criteria. For updated regulatory and guidance information, see Section 1. About one-third of all states monitor for E. Other states continue to use other pathogen indicator organisms, such as total coliforms or fecal coliforms. These parameters can be used as supplemental water quality information to help evaluate chemical, aesthetic, and transport effects that can affect water quality.

For example, wind speed and direction can help identify the direction of water currents that spread a sewage outfall discharge through a water body. Lake circulation patterns can also be influenced by wind and rainfall.

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Comparison of and betting systems The strategy and strategy are both popular strategies in online betting games used by many players in card games Baccarat , Blackjack or Craps. Obviously, the strategy is designed for players to follow and follow, but for long-time players who have a lot of experience, they will know how to change to best suit the situation. If that player is lucky and wins many consecutive wins for themselves, they can break the rules of strategy.

For example: change once and switch from betting system to betting system to be able to earn more bonuses in the 4th game. The difference As mentioned about the similarity of the two strategies above, the main crux of the strategy is in the last game bet level, now there are only 4 units left instead of 6 units. Players only need after 2 or 3 consecutive wins, there is almost certainly a bonus level that earns more than the initial bet and the last game will get more or less bonus depending on the player.

Obviously a new development in the strategy is similar, taking advantage of consecutive winning streaks of 2 to 3 times to be able to optimize the bonus level. Summary of the betting system With the information shared above, hope you have more useful information about the betting system in online betting games.

Use it to test the effectiveness of this tactic. In addition, you should also look for reputable bookmakers to bet on to avoid risks. Wish you good luck when participating in betting. If the outcome from the second bet is a win, bet two units on the third hand. If the outcome from the third bet is a loss, quit two units up. If the outcome from the third bet is a win, bet six units on the fourth hand. If the outcome from the fourth bet is a loss, quit breaking even.

If the outcome from the fourth bet is a win, quit 12 units up. Following is my flowchart of how to play. Start in the frame on the left that says "establish unit size. Analysis The following table shows the net win, probability, and contribution to the return by following the system on the Player bet in baccarat. The lower right cell shows an expected loss of 0. The average number of bets per session is 4. The ratio of expected money lost to money bet per session is 0.

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