Diff between space and place architecture
In the following, different explanations that are given to places are being global economy creates more inequalities and differences between places. In some cases, place has different meanings with space. According to Tuan (), space could be described as a location without any human. Content can tend of float in a space – each node or piece of information is a “place” – it's sharable, imbued with meaning. But the space itself. GOLF E W BETTING RULES FOR ROULETTE
According to well-known American geographer Yi-fu Tuan11, the distinction between Space and Place can be interpreted as: When Space feels thoroughly familiar to us, it becomes Place. When someone can say: I know this place? Is it when a person is able to put his own intimate boundaries around the space, the boundaries that help bring the image of the identity of place and identity with place? Landscape ning these are the articles and books dealing with the Identity of Place and Iden- There is something that no one can deny: the existence of tity with Place: Dalmatia, connection between place and the landscape.
The landscape is, Urban Identity and the War somehow, a physical and visual form of the space, some kind of ; Seeking Mean- ing in Places; Experiencing a boundary that makes it a place. At the same time the word Places: The Aesthetics of the landscape has various meanings.
At this very moment we shall Participatory Environment; Identity and Giove: HiIl consider landscape to be everything that is surrounding some Towns are Alive and Well particular place: natural and urban landscape. The appearance of in Umbria; Identity Key to Meaningful Place-Mak- the place, particularly of towns and villages on hilltops or river ing: The Case for Berke- confluences, is the most obvious attribute of some place and its ley; Identity With Place: A Source of Human Meaning identity.
The spirit of place lies in viewers and is performed by in Urban Design; The Bridge surrounding landscape, but it is for sure not the only one. The to Dalmatia: A Search for image of place depends on the inside factors as much as on the the Meaning of Place man- uscript for the book.
A statement that some town is situated on Experience A place can acquire different images appearances , as the Motovuna u Istri, zagrlila entire landscape changes just by altering the range of the viewed je brdo kao pipci velikog oktopoda territory. Time FG FG.. Glavna i jedina expression of hopes for the future. We have to be aware that the lokalnu prometnicu time for insiders is different from the time for outsiders The FG FG..
When moving from place to place, people among the hills of try to establish the image of the previous place by putting on Hrvatsko zagorje, Croatia sight some recognizable items. SL SL.. We need not go zagorja, Hrvatska so far back to the past to think of dead places.
The recent war in Croatia and Bosnia FG. The reasons are not just ruined houses and destroyed settlements, as people have managed to restore to build on ashes much bigger towns and cities London and Berlin after the World War II. The reason lies in people: many of them are trying to establish their new place in some other region, or country due to different reasons.
Yet still, there are a lot of people that wish to come back, and live on their ancestor's land. They feel they just cannot leave it. It can be called relation 13 Lynch, But, are these 14 Insiders versus Outsid- places to be the same after several years of reconstruction? Private, Personal and Public Place revealed by Prof. Francis Violich. For more upon this topic refer to the article Previous sections have brought a brief description of the place Identity: Key to Meaningful through three dimensions location and landscape adding the Place-making.
The Case for fourth one time. They all represent, so called an objective Berkeley in: "Prostor" : vol. To be able to understand the meaning of Vukovar, simbol ratom razorenih gradova u Hrvatskoj sion has to be mentioned: a subjective awareness of place, that depends on the viewer perception, awareness and feeling. Every single place with its surrounding landscape will be different- ly experienced by each of us.
Each of the places we look at through our own lenses that are created by our attitudes, expe- riences and intentions, under our own circumstances. Each of us tries to form his own private place. These private places physical- ly defined and publicly respected are usually apart from the public world, relating to psychological meaning and they are important for each of us. That private place can be a working table in a corner of the room, or a chair by TV or When we are in one of our private places, we do not want to be disturbed.
They express our individuality, and that is something that archi- 15 Examples of the mean- tects and planers must have in mind when designing places: ing of public space to the building, set of buildings, neighborhood, streets and squares, people and whole entire community and their aware- towns. Ran- for one person. Private place can also be defined by a group of dolph Hester at the De- partment for Landscape people or the whole entire community, and still each of them will Architecture at CED UC feel it like his own private place A simple bench in the park, or Berkeley.
In a case study traditionally known place for young people meeting point in for the town of Manteo, North Carolina he showed Zagreb "pod satom" under the clock at the central square of that sometimes a very sim- Zagreb can be of a special meaning of private place to part or ple, everyday public places in a small town can be of even the whole community. Although these places are in fact a great importance for public spaces they are considered as private places by so many people as themselves in the way of considering them people.
Real public places are streets, squares, public buildings, as a precious private place. They his books as: Neighborhood can not be experienced in that special way by anyone else as they Space ; Planning Neighborhood Space with are in our mind, in our memory.
We call them personal places, People ; Community and they are reflection of our own experience, our pure individ- Design Primer Thousands of people may see the same place, but each of them is going to have his own experience of it; everyone is going to make out of it his own personal space and its recognition. The places that we are mostly attached to are places of care, the settings in which we have had a multiply experience.
We feel a special sense for that place. There is also a respect for these places, a commitment to the place. Some of these places are called homes. Not to be mistaken: home is not just the house, it is the whole lot, surrounding, landscape that makes the place so special that we are so attached to it. This is also called the need for the roots. To be rooted is perhaps the most important and least recognized need of the human soul.
It is one of the hardest to define. A human being has roots by virtue of his real, active and natural participation in the life of the community, which preserves in living shape certain particular expectations for the future. Space and Place The various types of space are within direct objective experience of space on one side and subjective or abstract thoughts on the other side.
In this paper we shall examine physical space that we are concerned with. Space defines itself by everything we can experience in daily life: sky and earth, water and land, hamlet and city, street and square, a building itself from outside and inside. We call it visible space, space with physical or objective awareness.
Space with subjective awareness and without physical appearance is space in astronom- ical, mathematical or other kind of meaning as the space claimed to be occupied by objects, settlements or even countries. The real nature of space, and how it can be described, has been a matter of many discussions by philosophers, sociologists, scientists and others. The discussions are not even to be close to the final understanding of that simple word as the variety of space forms and space experiences is nearly indefinable: space is something so amorphous, so unpredictable in its understanding.
Space is the entity that can not be directly described and analyzed. Primitive Space One of the descriptions of primitive space could be the space that the infants and baby animals are "aware" of, the space that is associated with body movement and senses. This is a space that involves no images and awareness, no spatial relation between things in material world.
At this very primitive and limited level of self-consciousness it is very hard to distinguish space from place. In primitive space, a human infant starts to learn the essential movements through the space: moving his hand to reach some faint distant shadow that is moving somewhere around its moth- er's face or hand.
The infant does not recognize the distance to what makes the shadow; and it takes quite a while to coordinate the movement of its eyes and its hand with the movement of the "shadow". This kind of space can be considered as a set of places where someone finds himself in but is in no way capable to make any kind of a mental picture of it; it is not aware of the existence 16 Weil, The next experienced place 17 Relph, 8.
By growing 8 Pag. The humans, unlike any other living being, become aware of perceptual space. Perceptual Space By growing, the infant gets more mobile; it learns more by experiencing the space around.
Its egocentric space is getting larger and larger. Primitive space becomes perceptual space, a space that has some content and meaning, a space that can not be divorced from experiences and intentions. In this new format- ted space, as mobility increases, each individual arranges the world around in his manner and needs by picking up the ele- ments that might serve him in living in this space.
The individual becomes capable of perception - The perception that means proc- ess of becoming aware of the different stimuli in our surroundings. Through these particular encounters and experiences perceptual space becomes differentiated into places. Perceptual space can be shared by many individuals, and still be so unique for each of them. Cognitive Space The process of which the stimuli are the part of the outside world, the process of categorizing them, distinguishing between them or recognizing them is known as cognition.
It is uniform and neutral. Cogni- tive space in planning practice relies on geometry and theory of spatial organization. Trying to define the meaning of cognitive space in planning perhaps the most suitable definition could be the one that is defined within Euclidean space.
The essence of concept of this space is within the relative location of each single thing, the location that can be defined in a very systematic manner. Place in Euclid space can be understood as location defined by sets of 3-D or 2-D in aerial space coordinates that help the observer to understand the inter-relationship between places and its subdivisions. Using elements from Euclidean space architects and planners form a place from something that is momentarily so empty or abstract.
Using points, lines, curves they reshape a part of abstract space into something that will be understood and recognized by the rest of the people; they create perceptual or cognitive space defined through Euclidean space, space that will become real 18 Canter, 8. This kind 19 Norberg-Schulz, Abstract Space Euclidean space is not the only and necessary reflection of the space, but for sure is one of the mostly acceptable to the human mind. Today's mathematicians are dealing with space with more than three dimensions, practically with space with N-dimensions, so difficult to be understood by so many people.
Ordinary people would say it is so abstract. Abstract space must not be related to chaos. To the contrary, abstract space is the space of logical relations between points and lines, symbols for abstract relations. Abstract space is continuous, isotropic, homogeneous, finite and infinite at the same time. There is no significant distinguish between spaces; they all overlap each other and help every mind create its own variety of spaces and places. Primitive space integrates man with his natural, organ- ic environment; perceptual space is essential to his identity as a person, existential space makes him belong to a social and cultural totality, cognitive space means he is able to think about the space, Spatial Ability, Knowledge of Space Built and planned spaces represent an integration of experience and thoughts of some particular person, unlike the natural envi- ronment which is an integration of ecological forces that are not related to human hand, bur can be altered.
The knowledge of creating and reading maps is a fundamental part of somebody's experience of existential and perceptual space. Spatial knowledge extends, somehow, beyond terrain manifestation; it relies also upon the knowledge of heaven, or the entire landscape as itself. They are, un- 21 Norberg-Schulz, The same can determined through maps.
It is spatial ability and knowledge of be applied to the tribes liv- space through learning and determining from right to wrong ing in deserts of Africa, or tundra in Siberia, or ever- direction. Spatial ability is something that humans have to learn lasting icescape in north- ever since they are born, it develops slowly, while other animals ern Alaska and Canada. The human mind learns to deal with capable in finding their way spatial relations long after the body itself becomes capable in thorough the surrounding landscape.
And what is the performing some movements. Owing to the mind, the human most important, as the sur- spatial ability rises above the one of other living species. By rounding landscape has acquainting with space and place we gain better spatial ability been less differentiated, the spatial ability and aware- and vice versus. Spatial ability becomes spatial knowledge when ness is better.
It is proba- movements and changes of location can be envisaged. Every single space or place can be identified by different forms that are within. They can be natural or manmade one. Nature makes all the natural forms as seas, lakes and rivers, mountains, hills and valleys including the whole entire flora and fauna.
An individual develops the space according to its needs. He builds different settlements and roads in between, he makes built and planned spaces places that integrate his experience and thought. They help us create a cognitive space with cognitive ideas that help in creating all the environment in which we live.
Every human being creates its own image and experience of some place according to the information and images it has gained of the particular place. For instance, someone who lives in some particular place has very different image and awareness of the place from the others who come to that place for a short period of time residents and tourists. Perhaps we should call them users and viewers; or insiders and outsiders?
However we name the people that get the awareness and experience of some place, we have to consider the relation between form and space that can be natural or artificial one. Architectural Space and Planning Space Speaking of relation between natural and artificial forms, we get to the phenomena of architectural and planning space. Architec- tural space can be described as a part of abstract space that has become cognitive space as a result of some human attempt to create the space.
Architectural space can be identified, according to Siegfried Giedion, in three different ways: a Interplay between different kinds of volumes; b Space that is hollowed-out - interior space; c Space that is treated from several perspectives simultaneously, free relationship between inside and outside. This space is always surrounded by some other volumes architectural or natural ones and it is very impor- tant to understand their future interplay and correlation, as this is forming an image identity of the place.
For example, a glimpse look upon the drawing of a skyline can be enough to tell which place it belongs to. Unfortunately, the goal in creating a recognizable identity of some places led us to placeless architectural space. Placeless architec- ture can be found all around the world from gas stations and fast-food restaurants, food and department stores, all the way to well-known hotels. The architects had to serve the only goal: to preserve the identity of the function of the architectural space by repeating the same outside and inside design of the building FG.
Fortunately, today's trend in preserving identity is heading other direction and is getting stronger and more important. This time we are speaking about the identity of place including the whole environment and not only of the building or serving function itself. A great number of very successful designs and 24 Giedion, Lipovac, Space that treats the insideness and outsideness of some building as of same importance represents a bridge that connects architec- tural and planning space.
This kind of planning, fortunately lead us to the point where the planning as itself is not considered only as a 2-D planning process, as it was a case in the past. The two- -dimensional arrangement of functions and different urban usage led the planning space toward two-dimensional cognitive space of maps and plans - zonning.
This resulted by enormous usage of orthogonal grid street network system in town planning, specially in USA, as it served the most efficient transportation system, what was the main goal in town and city planning. The planning space was filled up with volumes of architectural spaces sited on two- -dimensional sites, and empty space in between regardless what was arround.
Fortunately, today we have different views upon planning process and preserving the environment natural and man made , consid- ering the space within three dimensions. This is one of today's' rising-to-the-surface approaches in architecture and town planning process that will, for sure, help to provide a sense of the identity of place and human scale, and preserve it for generations that are to come.
The correct and sincere perception and awareness of the place will help in making and creating the sense of place. These are the points that we shall try to discuss about in the next section. The Experience of Place In previous sections we tried to discuss on different kind of space definitions. It was done in order to be able to perform a suitable definition of place.
To be able to understand what is a place, in this section we shall try to reveal the meaning of the experience of place. We, the humans, can perceive the surroundings by two-dimension- al and three-dimensional sensing. Human mind is capable, some- how, to "translate" the 3-D image into a 2-D one, and vice versus. Of course, this can differ from person to person, according to someone's ability to "read out" the environmental settings.
This ability, that we are not always aware of, enables us to experience places around us. In United States of America the experience of places has become a vast field of research in social psychology with its subdivisions of environmental, urban and ecological psy- chology as a study of relationship between people and places. American sociologist Fritz Steele in his book "The Sense of Place" suggests to the reader to make an effort in answering the following questions in order to understand what is the meaning of experience of place: - What kind of mood is this place stimulating to me?
But the answers themselves are not enough; there is much more than that. We need to get experienced by some place to be able to understand it. In order to understand the meaning of the experience of place, in this chapter we shall try to describe and define the feel for place experience, sense of place and sense of time, spirit of place, and its impact.
To understand the meaning of place experiencing very important role has the perception and awareness of the place. Understanding of these meanings is of a great importance for a planner who really wishes to make a livable place or settlement. The planner has to learn to discover, reveal and understand all that if he wishes to make and create the sense of place.
Yet there is another task: he has to teach the people living in this place or area to understand the planning process that was just introduced and to keep the existing sense of place through settings, goals and future managing. Feel for Place Experience The meaning of the word Place is reflecting the importance of its role in human history.
The places are phenomena of direct expe- riences; people identify themselves with places; call some places 25 Steele, Differing places, people distinguish themselves by identifying the places they come from. There is no doubt: Places are shaping the characters of the residents, and people are shaping places through time, creating the new ones that they become part of. Ever since the first primate has descended from a tree he tried to find the place that would provide him and the members of his flock a sense of security - a feeling that they have a place they can go back to, the place that provides a sense of control over their own fate.
These feelings and experiences can be very intimate and social ones. Intimate experience of place Intimate experiences of places are very difficult to express, and explain so far. By intimate experience, place undoubtedly becomes the intimate one. Intimate places are places of nature where our fundamental needs are heeded and cared for without fuss.
Home is the place that is filled up with ordinary objects that we use in everyday life. A hometown is an intimate place, too. Never mind if we move out of it, each come-back will refresh our memories and fill us up with so warm experience. But the intimate experience with some place can develope even if we have never been to that place before. The first moment I saw and set my foot at San Francisco streets in , I knew I fell in love with the place.
There was something in the town that made me say to myself: "I want to come back, I want to feel the sense of this place". Connectidness with the past, or is it better to say with the roots, is of a great importance in experiencing some familiar places, too. The roots and the intimate experiences of this and other places on the Dalmatian coast that he has experienced during his visits to Croatia became a unique force that lead him to write a book27 he finished when I was in Berkeley, in spring The book, "The Bridge to Dalmatia: A Search for the Meaning of Place" is a collection of interpretive analyses of several Dalmatian towns and villages, on the coast and some of the islands.
The nature of his direct field study provides very good examples for the meaning of the expression: intimate experience of place. Its intimacy stands from family ties and enables the reader of the book to form the pictures in the head of the distant places, and sense the urban forms at the same time.
Social experience of place Contrary to intimate experience of place, the social aspects need to be discussed, too. People and their environment form so called "transactional systems", systems with each giving to and receiving 26 Tuan, Each place will be experi- Search for the Meaning of enced differently. It also depends whether you are alone at the Place that is going to be published by John Hopkins spot, or you are a member of a bigger social group.
If someone University Press, Baltimore. The choice that was made in order to give the participants some image or experience of the place. The inter-behaving of the members becomes the part of the place experience, too. The experience of the place is less objective, and more subjective, but subjective in the meaning of somebody's else image of the place. In case of tourist group it is the image that a guide wants to give to the group.
After the tour is finished all the members of the group are about to have very similar experience of the place, but if someone from the group returns to "the site" by him her self, the experience is probably going to be very much different. The planner has to search and reveal the sense of the place and the sense of time of the place and the people living in it.
Sense of Place, Sense of Time30 As we have learned in the previous sub-section, the same place can create different senses for different people, as they connect the appearance of some particular place with their being there direct experience or what they have read or heard about it indirect experience. We can say that the sense of some place is a collection of reactions that the settlements induct in some- body's mind, but also a set of aspects the person brings to the settlement.
The sense of the place is something that the living-in 29 Back in , when I person or the coming-in observer creates in his her mind at or visited California for the first during some period of time. A sense of place is an unusual time, I took a guided tour around San Francisco down composition of space and forms natural and man-made. I enjoyed my visit tation of this simple sentence in the mathematical way of formula very much, I fell in love with the place and prom- would be like this: ised myself to come back.
So I did. I returned to California in One weekend I went as a guardian divinity of the place than as the place itself. It had to San Francisco on my some kind of a divine and supernatural meaning, but our modern own. I walked around the same places, once I had culture "translated" it into something as "influence" of the place, seen from the bus, or from or "the ability to recognize different places and its identities". A a crowd. Of course there were some changes in ar- strong sense of place supports our sense of personal identity.
The second possibil- my place". Authentic and inauthentic sense of place the title of the book by Amer- ican social geographer Brin- Authentic place is the place with sincere appearance; appearance ckerhoff J. Authentic sense of place is something that It is something that cannot be replicated anywhere else. Each place has its own authentic 32 Lynch, There is only a question: Is this place authen- tic? An authentic place is made through personal commitment. To be able to "read " the authenticity of some place we have to wide up the range of our perception: to take into account the entire built and natural landscape.
While places acquire meaning simply because we live in them, their architecture and man-made landscape are not superfluous, for human life requires a system of places that have structure and form and meaning. The self-consciousness creates the authentic sense of place associated with architectural or planning design process. In his book "Place and Placelessness" E. Relph writes: An authentic sense of place is manifest in 33 Brinckerhoff, As we have concluded before, the authenticity is a phenomena that consists of an openness to the world on one side, and an awareness of the human conditions on the other side.
The inau- thenticity is, naturally, something with opposite sign. This is also characteristic of normal and everyday life, especially in industrial- ized and mass economy and values societies. Perhaps the simplest description of the meaning of inauthenticity is place with no sense, leading us to a new term placelessness.
Placelessness Cultural and geographical uniformity is not, of course, an entirely new phenomenon. The spread of Greek civilization, the Roman Empire, Christianity, or even the diffusion of the idea of the city, all involved the imposition of a homogeneity on formerly varied cultures and landscapes.
Landscapes of placeless geography, lacking, both diverse landscapes and significant places, and also imply that we are at present subjecting ourselves to the focus of placelessness and are losing our sense of place. Towns and cities, built through so many years, began to loose their character.
The "modern society" tended to destroy all the richness of places. Most of the place-decline started in the second half of the nineteenth century with indus- trial revolution in Western world: the town-spread consisted of massed proletarian areas: street after street, uniformed houses in a row, attached wall to wall. Not even the curving streets of England could save the placelessness experience.
What happened, meanwhile, across the ocean? The vast opened land, the rapid "progress" demanded "more efficient" planning which has resulted with grid planning system with straight streets, equally sized blocks; everything was planned to serve the vast growth of transportation. Even the industrial and merchandise architecture became part of the placelessness.
For example, one of these clone-designed super market stores on the outskirts of an average US town: the lot on a main streets crossing with the building that is surrounded with a vast asphalt surface determined to serve as a parking lot for hundreds of vehicles FG. There are no trees, no bushes, no lawns. Just asphalt covered with metal. Perhaps the reason in doing so is to enable the customers to see the shopping place wherever someone parks the car. The facade of the entire building is a flat, bald surface.
Only one wall is different, the one with a numerous photo-sensitive sliding glass-doors that are so efficient when pushing the cart full of merchandise out. The inside is a bright artificially illuminated area, with neatly arranged rows of shelves with all kind of goods, shelves on a distance that allows two-way cart traffic in between The progress goes on and on: in early sixties American planning system introduced shopping malls: places that under same roof have all kind of different 34 Norberg-Schulz, shops, restaurants, Now the customers could "enjoy the shop- To attract the customers the designers go for 35 Relph, San Francisco skyline as seen from an attractive architectural details: between the Korynth-styled col- the Bay umns on the facade there are stainless steel framed windows.
Obris grada San can be found within the structure called shopping mall. Another most discouraging examples can be found in tourism. The hotel-monsters, or how they are sometimes called hotel-cities are the worlds for themselves. In everlasting race for hotel standards there are things that for sure do not belong to some place like swimming pools with nicely warmed sea water that are built just several meters from the coast.
The best is when the pools are on the roof! Speaking of placelessness in town planning, as an endless source are the American towns built on rectangular grid system, widely spread along the vast open land, with far distant hill-line.
The down-town area within several blocks in square is filled with sky- rising towers, whose horizontal size mostly cover the entire block. The rest is flat built surface, not exceeding two or three floors.
This is the sky-line of most American cities. Fortunately there are still bright examples of unique experience and sense. Of course, on the top of my intimate scale are San Francisco and Berkeley, the cities that beside the grid urban structure have some intimate, but still international sense of place FG. The image of place and time Another, very important impact upon the sense of place is Time. Time is something that we are splashed with and within.
Every- thing that we try to remember is connected with time: work, meals, meetings, sleep. We talk about time that we have spent together with some other people, daily or weekly timetable of the life we share with others brings us together.
The whole frame- work of somebody's cognition is based upon orientation in time. It is our sense of time, our sense of ritual, which in the long run creates our sense of place, and of the community. The time is very important in perceiv- ing the image of some place or settlement. It help us understand the way some particular place was built and the reasons for it.
Let us see how does Edward Relph write about the connectidness of place and time: The changing character of places through time is of course related to modifications of buildings and landscapes as well as to changes in our attitudes, and is likely to seem quite dramatic after a prolonged absence.
On the other hand, the persistence of the character of places is apparently related to a continuity both in our experience of change and in the very nature of change that serves to reinforce a sense of association and attachment to those places. The whole entire world is filled up with dying places and dead place structures: Stonehenge in England, Carnac in France, Aztecs' and Incas' cities in South America, golden rush towns in California, town of Anghor-Watt in the jungle of Cambo- 37 Relph, These places have lost their original meanings, and now serve as, nothing else but tourist "attractions": thousands and thousands of passers-by scrawl around them without any special interest upon the place itself and its identity.
They only represent objects of casual observation, and something that could be talked about with pride: Look! This is where we were last summer! In search for such ghost places we don't have to go very far into the past: just think of the places that were destroyed during the WW2. Most of them have been re-built, people say more beauti- fully than they were before. The big question is: are these places the same as they used to be before?
So many places have been destroyed during the war in former Yugoslavia. Now when the war is over the politicians are bringing promises to the refugees that all the places are to be rebuilt. Inquiries into how cultural phenomena as representations of multiple and often quite contradictory meanings have been complemented by studies of agency and embodiment. Coping with mobility and displacement, studies now consider migration, place-making, and identity construction.
Notions of hegemony, surveillance, and the actions of the state interpenetrate local ethnographic sites that now must consider context in more complex ways than simply adapting to the physical environment. This review is organized to reflect early syntheses according to themes on social and symbolic dimensions, psychologies, and the social production of larger urban space, but it defers to those review works to provide details. This review focuses more on new areas of research that have emerged where a concentrated emphasis on space and place concepts can be found—the literature on place-making and design; on indigenous knowledge and development; indigenous rights and land claims; and food.
By no means is this review comprehensive, but it does sketch the outlines of some of the developments in new areas of research that take space and place concept seriously. This overview draws substantially from previous writings co-written with Setha Low. Whether it concerns the materiality of the built environment or the mobility of bodies across space or disrupting traditional borders and polities, space and place concepts pose challenges to theorizing in completely coherent ways.
Rather, anthropologists inspired by different disciplinary trends have offered different perspectives. Lawrence and Low reviews the historical development of spatial consciousness among anthropologists, and the ethnographic problematization of built forms and spatial orientation. They identify social organization and symbolic analyses, as well as psychological and social production theories. Two anthologies addressing more specific themes introduce new considerations.
Gupta and Ferguson offers papers that critically examine the postcolonial condition of globalization where locals and immigrants remake themselves in new places, engage in resistance or rework local sociopolitical systems. Low , an anthology on the city, presents diverse works by scholars on urban segregation by race and class, the role of fear and hegemonic forces in organizing the city, and disrupting effects of global, modern, and postmodern urban influences.
Ingold argues that one cannot understand space, or place, without moving through it. His emphasis on practice moves the field toward a more sensory view of space. A contrasting view is offered in Dawson, et al. Finally, Haenn, and Wilk provides an anthology of articles covering environmental anthropology from earliest theoretical foundations in cultural ecology to the most recent developments in indigenous initiatives, environmental management, and consumption.
Coleman, Simon, and Peter Collins, eds. Locating the field: Space, place and context in anthropology. Oxford: Berg. While place is an important element in ethnography, it is not the primary dimension of ethnographic practice. Negotiating territoriality: Spatial dialogues between state and tradition. New York: Routledge. Authors examine a territorial concept of space emphasizing the social construction of land tenure, control, and identity.
The book includes case studies exploring the contrast between tradition and modernity by considering European, settler and mestizo, and post-colonial societies. Different types of territorial appropriations collide with governments based on ownership regimes that inscribe space with contrasting notions of legitimacy. Gupta, Akhil, and James Ferguson, eds. Culture, power, place: Explorations in critical anthropology.
Durham, NC: Duke. Critical anthropological studies focused on the effects of postcolonial globalization on countries and their populations that increasingly migrate to new locations. The ethnographic studies challenge and explore the unquestioned assumptions relating place making, identity, and resistance and find that local communities, subjected to political process of the dominant society, rework and transform local cultural forms.
Haenn, Nora, and Richard Wilk, eds. The environment in anthropology: A reader in ecology, culture and sustainable living.
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