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csinvesting and collections to check out. called because they will appeal to both Republicans and Democrats) have been. Zimbabwe's and South Africa's governments and MNCs investing in supply of cobalt comes from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). I am grateful to my doctoral committee members: Muhammad Khalifa,. Karen Storm, and Russ Funk, The democratic nature of the innovation process, from. ETHERIUM VS LTC
This suggests that it should, in theory, have a very effective and accessible healthcare system, which it does. It has the highest number of doctors per citizens of any country in the world at 5. Furthermore, all citizens have access to a universal healthcare system. A universal healthcare system is one where all citizens have access, regardless of financial status, and they are not required to pay for any medical services beyond their taxes.
This is due to heavy investment by the government into a state-run healthcare system, entirely paid for by the taxes of citizens. This is further supported by the fact that Sweden has the 11th greatest GDP per capita of the world at 53,USD World Bank, , thus contributing to taxes and therefore investment into healthcare.
Sweden is ranked in stage 4 of the Demographic Transition Model, slowly shifting into the 5th, and reached that stage in around Furthermore, only 0. This is also partially due to development and access to education on family planning, healthcare and lifestyle. Argentina has 4. This suggests why only This also implies a lack of government investment into the public healthcare system. Furthermore, The country has over of these organizations for workers of the country, hence why it is the largest healthcare sector of the population of This all adds up to show that Argentina have great access to healthcare regardless of their developing status.
Argentina is one of a few developing nations in South America to currently be in the 4th stage of the demographic transition model, with a crude birth rate of These figures place it almost at the level of Sweden, though access to contraception and education on family planning is still low and not as widely accepted, as suggested by the slightly high birth rate. Argentina only have a 0.
However, there are only 2. Furthermore, there are only 2. The two latter figures are significantly lower than the developing nation of Argentina which lacks similar capital and access to resources as the USA. Sweden has a universal healthcare, so none of these services cost a thing for citizens, Argentina also has a wellcovered system, resulting in either none, or very low payments which are typically covered by insurance.
The average deductible for healthcare in the USA is around USD, meaning general work is often covered by the patients themselves. Premiums for the coverage of individuals comes to roughly USD per month while premiums for plans for families of 4 typically amounted to 1,USD per month These large figures contribute to reduced access to healthcare for low income groups within the USA as they simply cannot afford the insurance or the healthcare, and many workplaces dodge giving benefits by providing jobs just beneath the required working hours.
The USA has a crude birth rate of Argentina has a lower crude death rate than the USA, further highlighting how the Argentinian healthcare system is more effective than the American one. In conclusion, there are various factors which contribute to the level of healthcare a country offers and the access to healthcare of the citizens. The general trend shows that as development increases, the level of healthcare also increasess. They are separated by catastrophic global mass extinctions, such as the K-T event Cretaceous— Tertiary extinction at the end of the Mesozoic era and the beginning of the Cenozoic era, when the dinosaurs were driven to extinction.
This was due to an asteroid which devastated the planet, altering its climate and making it inhospitable for large animals. Soon plant life perished, with herbivores the first to die and carnivores soon after. This then marked the start of the Cenozoic era, also known as the Age of the Mammals. Within each era there are smaller geological subdivisions known as epochs.
These different epochs are decided upon by global geological signals, incorporated into deposits which become the future geological record that can be observed in rock layers. This meant that not only was there a change in the development of life, but also in the geological deposits which make up our geological records.
The geological records of that time period allow us to provide evidence for the reasons why these mass extinctions took place. Alverez et al1 found that globally there were higher concentrations of iridium found in deposits at the same geological time period as the K-Pg boundary. They proposed that the higher levels of iridium can only be explained by an extra-terrestrial event, such as the asteroid impact at Chicxulub, Mexico which resulted in a worldwide thin layer of iridium.
The most distinct indicators are radioactive isotopes which are present in the geological record due to nuclear weapons testing during the Atomic Age, which spread radioactive fallout worldwide. The post-war boom, known as The Great Acceleration, resulted in rapid development and increased consumption. In order to keep pace with population growth, the agricultural and industrial systems had to change.
The Green Revolution brought about a fundamental change in crop production; higher yielding crops demand greater quantities of pesticides, fertilisers and water, doubling the nitrogen and phosphorus levels in our soils and polluting our waterways2. Then global shift, a consequence of globalisation, has led to manufacturing moving East to rapidly industrialising nations.
Therefore, as the price of goods has fallen, Western consumerism has become a dominant economic and social order, hence promoting a higher quality of life to people universally. Consequently, the environmental impact has been catastrophic as these countries are less likely to enforce environmental regulations which will have a negative impact on their economic3.
In , atmospheric carbon dioxide levels hit a record high in human history at This is significant because carbon dioxide is a driver of global temperatures Figure 2. Figure 2. NOAA Climate. For example, it is already exerting a huge pressure on Arctic ecosystems.
Permafrost contains over 1, billion tons of trapped carbon dioxide; this is nearly double the quantity of carbon dioxide CO2 found in our atmosphere today6. Therefore, as permafrost thaws, it continues to release even more carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases such as methane CH4 [methane is 20 times more potent than CO2] into the atmosphere, contributing to the enhanced greenhouse effect, leading to further global warming which cyclically amplifies the rate at which permafrost is melting.
Melting permafrost is not the only positive feedback loop; there are other examples across every ecosystem and subsystem on earth Figure 3. Once we have reached the tipping point, positive feedback loops will be out of our control and warming will accelerate to unprecedented levels. Evolution occurs over millions of years, so life on earth will be unable to adapt at the pace required.
The K-T event was a result of an asteroid impact; however humans will be entirely responsible for this impending mass extinction event. The geological foundations for the Termazoic Era have now been laid. References Alvarez, L. Extraterrestrial Cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction. Science AAAS, , pp. Ashley, S. What is the Anthropocene?. National Trust. BBC, Carrington, D. The Anthropocene epoch: scientists declare dawn of human-influenced age.
Centre for Biological Diversity, The Extinction Crisis. Cho, R. Why Thawing Permafrost Matters. Connor, S. Why Did the Dinosaurs Die Out?. Climate Change: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Sharma, A. An example of a Positive Feedback Loop. Term for the next Era. London: s. Jones, N. Kolbert, E.
The Sixth Extinction [Interview] Troll, R. The Age of Rock. High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record ,—, years before present, s. NASA, n. Vaughan, A. Human impact has pushed Earth into the Anthropocene, scientists say. World Wide Fund for Nature, n. Deforestation and Forest Degredation. D emocracy has long been a topic of debate, whether about its minute discrepancies or over its fundamentals; but ultimately, democracy has provided the foundations for the Western world for decades.
In recent history, however, this system of government has come under threat from the very thing that it invented, politicians. Politicians have become increasingly calculating and it has become more common across the world for politicians to use Geography to manipulate democracy. In a Western democratic society, one of the best examples of Geography being used to impact 19 democracy is in the United States.
This is the process of manipulating the geographic boundaries of electoral constituencies to favour one party over another. Every decade, the electoral districts are re-drawn after the census. These boundaries are drawn not only by politicians, but in 37 States the drawing of these boundaries is controlled by the legislators themselves. This means is that the elected representatives who control who votes, rather than the other way around.
This situation is the opposite of the intended purpose of a system of democracy whereby the voters chose their elected representative. Due to new advances in technology, gerrymandering has become an almost exact science. A potent example of this being Hakeem Jeffries, where Jeffries was running for state assembly in Brooklyn when the map was altered in order to exclude his house from the district he was running in, excluding him from the race.
Former President Barak Obama also used the process of gerrymandering during his time as a state senator. He altered his district to increase his chances in the Senate race by increasing the power of the white, liberal, middle class in his state. There are several ways in which electoral districts are re-drawn to change the likely result of an election. It is this system that brings such disproportionate results. While it is illegal to gerrymander on the basis of racial minority groups, it is not illegal to gerrymander on the basis of partisan groups.
This legality therefore allows parties in the USA to change the geographical districts of voters to increase their electoral power. Ultimately, lawful gerrymandering brings the democratic system comes into a significant degree of disrepute. Geography has also affected democracy in the UK. If this occurs in several seats at the same election, the losing party may win a large proportion of the vote but only very few seats in the House of Commons.
This meant that it was hard to win a majority in any of the seats, even though they did get a lot of votes overall. This is another scenario where the use of geographical district majorities causes problems in the electoral system of a democratic society making them less effective and less democratic. On the other hand, this can also be seen as a strength of the British system, because historically it has meant that parties with extreme views, such as the National Front or the British National Party, have failed to win any seats in Parliament.
The geographical makeup of the UK also creates disproportionate results, most notably in Scotland. Compare this to the Liberal Democrats, who won The SNP only run in 59 seats in Scotland but win a majority in most of these seats. This means their vote is very concentrated in these areas, rather than dispersed over the whole of the UK, as with the Liberal Democrats.
This system of representation makes the UK relatively undemocratic, as the number of votes is not proportionate to the representatives present in the Commons. On a global level, the divide between urban and rural communities creates a significant democratic deficit in politics. In systems like the USA, where each state votes for at least 3 elected representatives, being two members of Congress and one of the Senate, an issue has arisen whereby rural voters have more representation than urban voters because the number of elected representatives does not depend on population size.
For example, in Wyoming, where there are , registered voters, they will have 3 and a half times a much representation as the 18 million voters registered in California. This means that the more dispersed a population, the more representation it will have. This same system is used across the world in 20 different countries. The most detrimental effect is felt in Argentina. In Argentina, in the lower house, each province is represented by 5 representatives, regardless of population size.
Due to the extremely dense population in Buenos Aires, they have as much as times References Alex Tausanovitch The Impact of Partisan Gerrymandering. How Hakeem Jeffries was Gerrymandered out of his own district and other true tales. A similar issue has arisen in Japan, who have a similar system, after the large increase in rural-to-urban migration in Japan after World War II.
This meant the rural voters progressively gained more and more representation as people moved out of the rural areas. For example, the influence that these voters have is shown through the failure to reduce tariffs on food imports and decrease the massive agricultural subsidies present in Japan. This shows the deficit in reform for certain groups i. In the end, the result of these systems sees the rural minority benefiting from disproportionate political power and influence.
Thus, the Geography of a country can be detrimental to the representative quality of its democratic system. Election One lifestyle has not been proved to be any happier, better or more fulfilling than the other; they are merely different.
In fact, there is evidence suggesting that there is no significant correlation between the growing wealth of a country and the growing happiness of a country. In these countries, income per capita has doubled in less than 20 years but overall happiness has fluctuated marginally with no real trends Frank, Theo S ome countries are rich, some countries are poor.
Do the disparities in the worldwide spread of wealth and power have distinct causes? Or is it no more than a lucky coincidence? Firstly, before we delve into answering this complex question, I must outline some oppositions to even discussing it at all.
If we do in fact manage to explain global inequality, some think that this may then justify the domination of the West, allowing it to continue. Wealthy countries may take the view that they were destined to be rich and powerful and therefore the exploitation, colonisation and dismissal of other countries may seem morally acceptable.
However, this opposition conflates how one 22 makes use of an explanation with the explanation itself. Another opposition to answering this question is that it may lead to a Eurocentric view of the world, a glorification of Western Europe and Europeanised America in the modern world.
This response would be to postulate genetic variation as an explanation for the difference in development across the world. One may suggest intraspecific genetic variation causing varying levels of intelligence, diligence and creativity which result in a spectrum of economic successes and development. Not only is this racist but it has also been heavily disproved by countless scientific studies. We, as a species, have been estimated to share If a country had the necessary conditions for productive agricultural production sufficient hours of sunlight, temperatures around 25 degrees Celsius, sufficient precipitation, fertile soils National Geographic, no date then they could successfully make this switch, causing civilisations to become commercialised - trading crops and specialising in trade to produce specific crops for the With the failure of this response, where else shall we search?
If the difference does not lie within the inhabitants of the various locations, perhaps it lies within the locations themselves. Perhaps geographical factors are what divided countries into rich and poor, developed and undeveloped, powerful and powerless.
It will be useful for us to state what it is we mean when discussing geographical factors. By this we are referring to both the constant features such as latitude, distance from coastlines and elevation 23 whole community. This also freed up time so certain people could spend time innovating and producing technology to aid development rather than spending all day individually hunting and gathering for survival. Nowadays, farming is much more climate-insensitive — humans can manufacture internal conditions to suit crops regardless of natural conditions.
However, manipulating conditions requires costly technology and in low-income countries LICs habitants cannot accumulate the capital investment necessary for this technology so are still reliant on climate. Not only do LICs lack investment for technology required for farming, they also often lack infrastructure for irrigation, lack knowledge and education on suitable techniques, lack access to fertilisers and pesticides due to poor transport and most importantly lack a workforce to maintain the land.
This lack of labour causes children to be hired to tend to land, missing out on an education, fueling the vicious cycle of poverty as they are uneducated so will miss out on higher income jobs when they are older. Moreover, extreme climates can impede development. Extreme climates repel migrants, tourists and economic activities due to the uncomfortable and unpredictable nature of the environment. Furthermore, infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue and leishmaniasis thrive in hot and humid climates as breeding temperatures for vectors are optimum resulting in a greater population growth of the vectors and an increased spread of the disease.
This limits the economic productivity of the population and increases costs of healthcare. Countries with temperate climates have fewer epidemics because, during the cold winter season, organisms hibernate, limiting the spread of diseases through animals and insects. Another geographical factor affecting development is the prevalence of risk of climate hazards. Tropical cyclones, droughts and floods all affect food security, damage infrastructure and increase costs of healthcare, impeding stable economic growth.
Another way that environmental determinism can influence development is the access to global trade routes that a country has. It is no coincidence that a third of the countries that were ranked by the Human Development Index as having low human development were landlocked United Nations Information Sheet, no date the only developed landlocked countries being the few in Western Europe which are highly integrated into the regional European market.
Landlocked countries are heavily reliant on neighbouring countries to access global trade markets; these countries may have poor infrastructure, unstable political situations and corrupt, untrustworthy trading practices. This leads to high, volatile prices of imports and exports on average import and export prices in landlocked countries are more than double than those in coastal countries.
The high, volatile costs of trade are reflected in prices of goods, so the cost of living is often higher in landlocked countries. However, with improving travel infrastructure by train and road and a shift towards cheaper air cargo transportation, this factor could potentially become less of a restriction for development. To conclude, a large factor affecting development of a country is geographical location.
Potential industries and therefore economic development depend on location. However, this is only applicable for the primary industry which is necessary to jump-start development; importance diminishes once the country becomes developed and there is a shift towards secondary and tertiary industry.
Also, climatic hazards and optimum conditions for the spread of an epidemic can set back development due to destruction of infrastructure and the cost of restoration, as well as the detrimental impact on the workforce.
On the other hand, governmental policies and attitudes can heavily influence development despite the geographical factors. Natural resources are found in abundance in some nations, and in scarcity in others, creating a demand and a supply which nations can capitalise on, maximising profit from their fortunate finding.
One such example is the UAE Crown Prince Court, no date transforming from a poverty-ridden country to the country with the 28th highest GDP per capita in the world due to the utilisation of oil resources. However, without careful institutionalised management, natural resources do not necessarily lead to development. The African countries of Congo, Angola and Gabon are all rich with natural resources diamond, bauxite, natural gas , yet extreme poverty prevails due to poor management of resources in countries with war and political instability.
Genomics Fact Sheet. The Zimbabwean government would do well to learn this. Nestled deep in southern Africa, it is infamous for the hyperinflation which has plagued the economy since the s, tragically cutting short the potential seen prior to this in the Southern Rhodesia state, the precursor to modern-day Zimbabwe.
However, we must first distinguish inflation from hyperinflation: inflation is the sustained rise in the general price level of an economy. What has caused such excessive inflation and what has been its effects on 25 Zimbabweans and the rest of the world? Are there any potential mitigative or preventative measures that could have been implemented, or which might be needed now to prevent history repeating itself?
However, this became problematic when the government instituted extreme land reforms, which took land from white farmers and redistributed it to much less experienced and less skilled black farmers. As the value of the Zimbabwean dollar dwindled, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe responded by printing yet more money, and, in this way, hyperinflation became a rapidly worsening, self-perpetuating cycle until the currency was abandoned entirely in , with foreign currencies, primarily the US dollar, used instead.
The social repercussions of the initial crisis were catastrophic. Two severe droughts in and only worsened the slump in agriculture. Such dire economic conditions led to swathes of emigrants to neighbouring countries, causing a fall in the population and labour force. The government attempted to fix this problem by setting price ceilings, but this would lead to shortages and these businesses were unable to turn a profit and so disappeared, giving rise to a black market filled with goods and services at a much higher price as a result.
Money stopped fulfilling its main purpose, as society began to favour a system of bartering instead. Billionaires were now starving- a peculiar thought. So, what should have been done instead? The government firstly instigated the entire situation through their land reforms, then failed to nip the problem in the bud and continued to worsen it by persisting in printing money until Instead, the land reforms could have been much gentler initially, whilst being implemented in tandem with investment into human capital, to help the marginalised black population gain the skills required to become farmers.
However, having introduced these radical reforms, the government then should not have taken on as much debt as they did, and might have been better off adopting deflationary policies such as increasing interest rates, devaluing the currency though this is much harder to carry out- the failed attempt in Mexico in the s evidences this or, most importantly in this case, reducing the supply of money.
Not only was this contractionary monetary policy not followed, but instead the government did the exact opposite for almost 20 years. Zimbabwe has seen several worrying signs in recent times, as inflation has rocketed once more. The crisis seemed over until February , where foreign currencies were deemed to no longer be legal tender and were replaced by Real-Time Gross-Settlement RTGS dollars.
It is estimated that around half of the population, or 7. Now, the Zimbabwean government must learn from their mistakes, to help provide the essentials for their people. The Jewel of Africa seems like a lifetime ago, a forgotten dream. Financial Times. Dallas: Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. The New York Review of Books. Cato Institute Journal. The Economist. The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics. Pretoria: University of Pretoria. Dublin: Central Bank of Ireland. Washington, D. Araliya G lobal warming has become a very prominent issue as a result of the acceleration of globalisation.
Globalisation is a long-standing process which involves widening and deepening interdependence between countries and the movement of goods and services across borders. It has been present since the 15th century but has only recently accelerated in the 19th century due to development of transnational corporations TNCs.
Climate change and the warming of global temperatures has severe consequences for the environment, increasing temperatures can cause rising sea levels, glacial melt and lead to severe climatic conditions. A carbon sink is a natural reservoir of carbon, such as an ocean or forest which can store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Carbon sinks play the key role of preventing carbon levels from rising to dangerous levels and are therefore of prime importance in preventing global warming. High carbon dioxide levels accelerate the natural greenhouse effect which as a result leads to warmer temperatures. Less carbon dioxide is being converted into oxygen through photosynthesis by trees, and there are fewer carbon sinks able to store the increasing carbon emissions when deforestation occurs.
Many TNCs encourage deforestation for example, for agricultural farming. Vast quantities of forest are removed via by slash-and-burn farming. This technique involves cutting the natural vegetation and burning it to clear it for cultivation.
As a result, carbon sinks 28 are being destroyed but there is also the increased risk of emissions from the fires created from these slash and burn methods. Worldwide slash and burn farming destroys 50 acres of rainforest every hour in areas such as central Africa, northern South America, and Southeast Asia.
Palm oil is also another significant reason for deforestation. Palm oil is used in almost all everyday products, ranging from lipstick and ice cream to detergent and soap. Greenpeace International assessed palm oil production to find that 25 palm oil groups had cleared , hectares of rainforest since the end of It is imperative that TNCs such as these are held responsible for deforestation and therefore global warming. TNCs also promote carbon dioxide emissions through transportation, which is essentially one of the key components of globalisation.
The process of globalisation includes the movements of goods and services across international borders by these large corporations and therefore transport is a necessity. However, due to globalisation focusing on connections between hub cities worldwide, aviation dominates.
These emissions have increased the global temperature by 0. TNCs have been the primary reason for this rise due to the increase in transport and the movement of products globally, therefore the recent acceleration of temperature global warming has been a direct consequence of their activity.
TNCs also indirectly promote carbon emissions through industrial activity and consumption. With the growth of globalisation, demand for electricity generation also increases which largely involves burning coal and oil. In turn, this enhances the greenhouse effect and hence climate change. TNCs tend to locate in less industrialised countries due to relaxed environmental policies put in place to encourage foreign direct investment FDI for example, in Ford set up an assembly plant producing , cars a year in Chennai, India due to the relaxed restrictions.
As a result, countries such as India and China have higher carbon emissions due to their large proportion of industrial activity. This clearly shows that where TNCs choose to locate has a huge influence on the carbon emissions produced, as they are responsible for the vast quantities of energy being used for industrial activity and manufacturing.
Whilst TNCs are clearly causing environmental concern they benefit people in several ways, by bringing foreign direct investment FDI into developing countries they are helping to boost the economy and provide local people with new jobs and skills. This investment allows the government to spend more on infrastructure and services such as education and healthcare, improving the standard of living for the local people.
Furthermore, the development of TNCs could lead to more sustainable alternatives in the future as countries continue to globalise and profit, they can afford to turn to cleaner alternatives for industry, creating a positive feedback loop to help the sustainability of future industrial activity.
However, this cannot be accomplished without the side effect of environmental degradation. Transport can be argued to be the most important component of globalisation as without it, goods and people cannot be moved across international borders. However, this movement is driving climate change through the increasing contribution of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere via aviation. Food chains 29 are also greatly responsible for the increased rate of deforestation, with a growing population pressure is placed on current resources and making space for agricultural farming has become more prominent, threatening the existing carbon sinks.
What is the impact of globalisation on the environment?. Last accessed 21st Nov Espino, C. Why are carbon sinks so important?. Last accessed 28th Nov The Climate Reality Project. Greenpeace International. Air pollution. Last accessed 2nd Dec Michael, K. How do we know more CO2 is causing warming?. Last accessed 3rd Dec Guerrero, G.
Center for Strategic and International Studies. Last accessed 9th Dec Riy aK um ar i Is globalisation sustainable in less developed countries? Jai - cross curricular Economics essay G lobalisation and the attendant concerns about poverty have reached the pinnacle of pressing discussions. The financial press and influential international officials confidently assert that global free markets expand the horizons for the poor, whereas activist-protesters maintain the opposite belief with equal intensity Bardhan, Let us first define globalisation: it is a process by which economies and cultures have been drawn deeper together and have become more 30 inter-connected through global networks of trade, capital flows, and the spread of technology and global media.
A momentous area of interest is that of economic globalisation — the expansion of foreign trade and investment. How does this process affect the incomes and access to resources for the poorest people in the world? How does it affect their lives? Do the benefits outweigh the costs? These questions are some of the most imperative in social science today. The globalisationpoverty relationship is complex. The concept of free trade exists on the principle of comparative advantage, the idea that countries are better off when they export the commodities, they are best at producing, and import the rest this leads to increased productivity and output of an economy.
Many economists accept the principle, but even they have serious differences of opinion on the balance of potential benefits and actual costs from trade and on the significance of social protection for the poor. Free traders believe that the rising tide of international specialisation and investment benefits all.
Others put forward the view that innumerable poor people lack the capacity to adjust, retool and relocate with changing market conditions. These scholars argue that the benefits of specialisation emerge in the long term, over which people and resources are assumed to be fully mobile, whereas the adjustments can cause difficulties in the short term Nissanke and Thorbecke, One may say this is a result of globalisation and the openness of these economies. Nonetheless, to convincingly demonstrate that improvements in their condition are mainly the result of globalisation is rather cumbersome.
In China, the positive poverty trend could instead be accredited to internal factors such as the expansion of infrastructure, the massive land reforms reallocation of agricultural land to landless people , changes in grain procurement prices, and the relaxation of restrictions on rural-to-urban migration. Those who are dubious of the benefits of globalisation point out that poverty has remained high in Africa.
Between and the proportion of Africans living below the international poverty line increased from 42 to 47 percent Bardhan, But this lack of development is seemingly less associated with globalisation than with unstable or failed political regimes. Though any trend in poverty and income inequality observed so far cannot be mainly attributed to globalisation without rigorous analysis, one cannot simply dismiss the concerns raised that this process may have had at least some adverse effects on poverty.
One influence that should be considered is that of the International Monetary Fund IMF : an institution established to regulate global financial systems this was done as a part of rebuilding the global economy after World War II. One example of a devastating policy was the Structural Adjustment Policies SAPs , which, in essence, were established to ensure debt repayment, leading to governments of LDCs reducing national government spending on critical sectors such as health and education, and caused LDCs to become more dependent on the developed nations in terms of trade and employment Clapton, This negative effect of globalisation led to the diminishing prospect of LDCs competing effectively in the global market, and thus was not economically sustainable.
John Maynard Keynes, a British economist and the founder of Keynesian economics, insisted that capital machinery should not be moved from one place to another, as capital was needed to stimulate economic growth: he disagreed with the deregulation of finance Clapton, His words were of great wisdom: ironically, the Multinational Corporations MNCs in the world today are seen by many as a devastating force due to the ability of MNCs to move capital and operate in countless places in the world.
Unfortunately, these workers with these jobs are languishing. This, fundamentally, insinuates that MNCs tragically give little consideration to the extreme poverty of its powerless workers as long as productivity increases, and consumer demands are met. In fear of driving away MNCs, governments of developing countries are less likely to enact regulations to protect and enhance labour rights.
In short, we have observed that globalisation may not be socially sustainable from this perspective. Conversely, globalisation can help spread the positive effects of environmentally friendly technologies and practices from developed to developing countries. This can reduce pollution in developing countries through, for example, importing greener technologies or developing better environmental regulations and standards. The environmental sustainability depends on the way resources are used, and weaker states are more likely to suffer more costs than benefits in the process due to misallocation of resources and poor regulation.
Nonetheless, there are numerous measures under intense discussion to address the issue of poverty in less developed countries. The major hurdle many poor countries face is not too much globalisation but too little and reducing trade barriers and tariffs can lead to acceptance and recognition in global markets Bardhan, In summary, globalisation is a pivotal phenomenon by which the world has become increasingly interconnected, and unequivocally, the spread of technology, ideas and culture are all tremendous positive impacts.
However, its sustainability in less developed countries remains a simple question with ambiguous, complex answers. It may be more a question of how willing these less developed countries are to reap the benefits of globalisation: poor infrastructure, venal government officials, corrupt politicians, and weak states — all these factors may be the root causes of poverty in many less developed countries.
Improving upon these issues will enable the masses to thrive without one hand tied behind their back, without major constraints, and ultimately, without a lack of sustainability. Nissanke, M. Many people say that MNCs flock to poor countries with relaxed environmental standards. These standards are ultimately a domestic policy or institutional failure, leading to resource depletion. If a country opens its markets without dealing with these distortions, it increased economic growth.
Positive effects of globalization for developing country business. November Bardhan, P. Malika A superpower is a country that has the capacity to project dominating power and influence anywhere in the world. There are many different countries that are considered as rising superpowers such as Russia, due to its large economy which is sustained by natural resources and China, due to its extensive contribution to the global manufacturing industry.
Whether India can be a global superpower can be assessed from a geopolitical, social and economic standpoint and by comparing it to the USA; the only global superpower. India is surrounded by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Bay of Bengal to the west. This is one of the reasons that India is projected to have the largest GDP by This means India has the potential to strengthen ties with external trading partners which would help project its influence in other countries through the spread of its culture in the form of goods, foods and exportations.
India is aiming to produce 72 GW of hydroelectric power by and 20GW of solar energy by The complexity then adds implicit burdens required to manage the process, for individuals and firms. The existence of a tax preparer industry is itself a sign. And more. And, there may be very good reason to do so. Those with investable funds hoping for a net present value that is positive. Let me add: 5: Where, there is a correlation between risk and return: to get higher hoped for return rates one must undertake higher risks and subject oneself to growing uncertainty.
Uncertainty, here, is used in the sense, where we do not know enough to provide a credible scale and distribution of risks across outcomes. Cumulatively, that pool is big enough to shape economies. Greed is real, investment and risk that feed the wellsprings of a brighter tomorrow are also real.
Thus, multipliers. Consume some, save some, invest some. If that sum is big enough because of a bad general situation, you get a crash into depression. That rewards investment in making same, paying workmen with relevant skills such as using an adze to shape wood , and feeding into the economy, going into the multiplier. The bank invests onward to make money to pay interest and cover its costs and expectations of its investors.
The mutual investment is much the same. The financial markets are much the same. The market will dry up or shift to where labour of adequate quality is cheaper and has advantages through trade deals. Bye bye luxury yacht industry and well paid blue collar jobs, clerical and managerial jobs, thus a multiplier working in reverse.
And this did happen in the US some decades ago. Maybe we see some effect but after a time the intuitive skills and productive teams will have been lost. Exactly what is being undermined. But we have a world in which aggressive ideologies are a fact of life and the need to defend the global sea trade routes is also a fact of life.
That entrenching is largely ideological. Consider who the farthest-left commonly acknowledged figures are: Mao, Stalin, etc. And notice the clever colour reversal, where suddenly red is the colour of the far right. A glance at relevant flags will show that it is normally the colour of communism. Constitutional, representative, tamed democracy is in the middle. Limited Government power under law, with leadership committed to democratic freedom under just law with a regular audit of government by general election.
However, such is inherently unstable and must be stabilised through social-cultural forces.
NEVERLAND ROCK BAR NICOSIA BETTING
Review: The book provides a concise and astute portrait of the personality type that is drawn to authoritarian institutions, whether political or religious. Hoffer makes an excellent case that the mass movements — the fascists, the communists, and the various brands of religious fundamentalists, that have caused so much death, suffering, and chaos throughout history in their attempts to impose their values and belief systems on others, have all depended on people of basically similar character to fill their ranks.
Every voter should read this book and then look at the world today — the politics of fear and division, the growth of fundamentalist religion, the strident bigots on talk radio and TV — and then start working to reduce the danger they all pose to the freedoms in our Constitution, to the separation of church and state, and to our standing in the world.
Rosenberg………… There is no discussion about investing in the book, but in my opinion, it is extremely helpful in understanding markets. It conveys the nature of human behavior in mass—how people act as a group. One of his great examples is explaining why people riot. There is no reason and no logic. People just get caught up in it. People panic in a group, but they come back to their sense one by one. That is why stock move incrementally the way the do.
JR: Young people today in business are much more macro-oriented than micro-oriented. They spend much more time on what is going on in Europe or Federal Reserve policies. Rosenberg………… There is no discussion about investing in the book, but in my opinion, it is extremely helpful in understanding markets. It conveys the nature of human behavior in mass—how people act as a group. One of his great examples is explaining why people riot. There is no reason and no logic. People just get caught up in it.
People panic in a group, but they come back to their sense one by one. That is why stock move incrementally the way the do. JR: Young people today in business are much more macro-oriented than micro-oriented. They spend much more time on what is going on in Europe or Federal Reserve policies.
Even when they do they have a very low level of confidence in what they are doing. If it was up to me, I would make financial history and all history a number one requirement for business schools. Understanding how a spreadsheet works can be learned on the job easily but understanding the continuum of history requires certain intellect.
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