Sports betting professor downloads
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Assuming you need to win high odds bets, you can buy our Professor betting tips match app once and you can use it forever. The risk reduction and control enhancement balance. A narrative based on attributes from the lower-left quadrant would be contrary to intui- tion, since products perceived as offering high risks with low control over them will not be attractive for bettors.
The lower-right quadrant offers an interesting theoretical possibility. The combination of high risk but also high control may be appropriate for sensation seek- ers. A bettor could decide to engage in very risky bets if the outcome compensates the risk taken, for instance in the form of an improbably huge prize. However, no sports betting advertiser was found to follow this logic in the sample selected.
Both positions in the upper half deal with low-risk situations. Low-risk and low-control conditions upper left were frequently employed in sports betting advertising. References to fun and excitement do not necessarily draw on enhanced control attributes, but accentuate the lack of negative consequences of losing a bet.
More frequently, bookmakers positioned Downloaded by [Professor Mark Griffiths] at 24 September their brands in the upper-right quadrant, promoting low-risk products in control-enhancing conditions. Framing messages within the upper half ideally permits bettors to see themselves as performing a low-risk endeavour with some degree of personal control over it.
However, in the event of a lost bet, the advertising narrative opens the possibility for bettors to tran- sition from right to left, exchanging the reward content from extrinsic to intrinsic that is, from money to fun. Constantly within the low-risk quadrants, bettors remain winners at all times, conveniently shifting from money to fun prizes.
Themes realign well in this dual strategy. Considered as a whole, all these themes contribute to the per- ception of sports betting as a risk-free activity. Money-related promotions — e. Friendship and camaraderie create a familiar context of comfort and security in which behaviour is reinforced by imitation Deans, Thomas, Daube, Derevensky et al. Many advertisements portray friends discussing sports betting options while enjoying watching sport together.
Humour can also be understood as a risk-lowering tactic. Humour, when associated with friendship, also strengthens the notion that having fun with friends is the ultimate reward of sports betting. In this regard, fun and entertainment are not isolated themes but work in conjunction with humour and friendship to construct overarching narratives of safety and comfort that encourage risk-free betting. Similarly, the use of celebrities also aligns with risk-lowering strategies.
In addition, sports celebrities serve a dual purpose in the risk-lowering control-enhancement strategy. By definition, becoming a professional athlete means beating the odds. The lives of many sport celebrities represent a story in which an immensely low probability becoming a sports star has been turned into a story of success by means of continual skills training i.
On the other hand, the control-enhancing strategy includes themes such as data analysis and sports knowledge, experience and masculinity. Data analysis and sports knowledge act as control-enhancing mechanisms. Sports betting is presented as an activity that can be mastered with enough preparation and skills.
Knowledge assists bettors by informing their decisions. To this effect, bookmakers provide their clients with background informa- tion, a wealth of statistics, and news stories concerning the teams and players in the games. Following this logic, unpredictable events are turned into predictable ones, and amendments for lost bets can be made through better preparation in the future.
Advertisements that target older adults include the experience component wherein older characters make use of their accumulated sports knowledge over the years to beat younger bettors. Another theme involved in the enhancement of control is masculinity. Although not explicitly mentioned in any advertisement, masculinity is an underlying theme in many of them.
Masculinity aligns with a representation of decisive and courageous behaviour Downloaded by [Professor Mark Griffiths] at 24 September Deans et al. In some instances, such as advertisements that show characters deciding whether to place a risky bet, masculinity gives them a boost of confidence to accept the challenge in the form of authoritarian thinking or recklessness. Against the backdrop of risk-reduction and control-enhancing narratives, new techno- logical features play a pivotal role.
The opportunity to follow in-play sports betting through live audio or video feeds, advertised by a number of bookmakers, transforms the bettor into an eyewitness, even in situations where a television screen is not available. Features such as tracking platforms or text alerts add to the idea of surveillance that bettors can exert over their bets, reducing the risk involved while increasing the control. The technological substitution hypothesis As the second proposition of the narrative of control in sports betting advertisements, this paper further theorizes that sports betting online platforms and devices are configured in sports betting advertising as control enhancers.
It also theorises that the ability to predict the outcome of a sports event is substituted by the ability to use such platforms and devices. Figure 2 proposes such substitution via a three-step diagram. Step I condenses the baseline narrative for control in sports betting advertising. Here, the difficulty of a bet lies in the intersection between the difficulty of predicting an event and the skill to predict it.
More probable events are easier to predict, and similarly, stronger predictive capacities are more likely to be able to predict more complex events. A low ability to predict combined with a difficult bet will result in a losing bet; conversely, easier bets accompanied by better predictive skills will result in a winning bet. However, in sports betting advertising, the terms by which enhancement of control is claimed are misleading.
In other words, the outcome of a bet is no longer as determined by the skill to predict future events as by the ability to control the technology to bet i. The transformation can be analytically divided into two steps. In Step II, there is a role activation of sport bettors.
Control enhancement depends greatly on the internalization of the locus of control, but bettors can hardly think that they have any active role in a sports game in which they do not participate. Sports betting advertising tackles this issue by transforming the perception of certain elements.
Once the role of the bettors has been activated, Step III shows the resulting scenario. If bettors accept the mental configuration proposed by sports betting advertisers, then the balance between a bet lost and won depends upon the ability to control a platform and the difficulty of doing it. Platforms that are quicker and easier to use will have a direct effect on more controlled and easier bets; naturally, bookmakers position their products along those lines.
If advertisements parallel the difficulty of predicting the outcome of a sporting event with the difficulty of placing a bet on that event, bettors can exert direct control over the outcome of their bets by using quicker and easier technologies. General discussion The present study seeks to build a comprehensive theory of control in sports betting adver- tising.
Departing partially from previous literature in the field where themes are presented as separate advertisement narratives, the data gathered from a sample of British sports betting advertisements were analysed in order to hypothesize a single core narrative that integrated most individual themes from various narratives. Risk-lowering themes, such as those employed in the narratives analysed here, make sense from a communication perspective. Furthermore, risk reduction is a common goal of advertising in any market sector Boshoff, For instance, dis- plays in advertisements of friendship and camaraderie may add to the myth of gambling as a harmless activity if done publicly, as previously noted by Deans et al.
Other scholars have already posed the need to regulate free-money inducements Hing, Sproston et al. Similarly, celebrity Downloaded by [Professor Mark Griffiths] at 24 September endorsement is widely used across markets. However, the attraction of children and young adults to elite sports stars might make it advisable to limit the belief distortions around control and risk-free sports betting that some narratives appear to enact.
Along with risk-reducing components, the theory anticipates a disproportionate empha- sis on control-enhancing elements in the narratives. In recent years, sports betting adver- tisements have increased their focus on exotic bets e. Yet the outcome of such bets is often difficult to calculate and regularly involves a higher loss expectancy Hing, Sproston et al.
Bettors typi- cally resort to heuristics to process information e. Following the two-step theory of control Rothbaum et al. However, according to the theory of sports betting advertising proposed in the present paper, advertisers appear to be transforming the perception of secondary con- trol back into primary control. The constant references in advertisements to the platforms as the place where the games are played, and the activation of the role of bettors, thereby internalizing their locus of control, could be adding to the illusion of sports betting as a primary control tool of sports action.
Additionally, a higher perceived control sensation could be further prompted by new sports betting technological affordances. Online betting imagery differs greatly from other forms of gambling, such as lottery playing. Bettors are not generally encouraged to seek a once-in-a-lifetime strike of luck but to persevere in their sports betting to make small but frequent amounts of additional money.
Sports betting imagery typically entails a dynamic of multiple repetitions over time of small or moderate bets. However, as noted by Binde , small and frequent wins do not necessarily translate into a net win, and many bettors, especially problem gamblers, might overestimate the overall money won while underestimating their losses Griffiths, All things considered, the interaction of frequent wins over time with the primary perception of control could provoke bettors to think about themselves as winners, as an identity trait rather than a transitory condition.
Such a characterization would be consistent with sports world symbolism Deans, Thomas, Derevensky et al. The present study is not without limitations. The relatively small number of advertise- ments comprising the sample although it is larger than that of many previously published studies , and the short period of analysis — was intended to serve analytical purposes. Consequently, it is not necessarily representative of the larger evolution of sports betting advertising over a longer time period.
In addition, sports betting here is focused Downloaded by [Professor Mark Griffiths] at 24 September on its most characteristic type, soccer, although other sports and betting practices, such as horse and dog racing, are also popular in the UK.
Implications and conclusions If, as contended here, sports betting advertising continues to emphasize those aspects that help gambling be perceived as a more controllable activity, new technological developments that align with that core concept might be favoured by bookmakers. An increased gamifica- tion of sports betting appears to be likely in such a scenario. By turning gambling dynamics into game dynamics, sports betting can arguably incorporate the following characteristics: i more engaging and attention-demanding products, with bettors required to perform composite complex actions and calculations; ii as bettors adopt a more active role, betting outcomes i.
To counterbalance such evolution, regulation will need to play an increasingly promi- nent role. Currently, advertisements conveying narratives that exaggerate control are not technically illegal in the UK, although the regulatory bodies entrusted to enforce gambling advertising laws have made an attempt to clarify this point.
Consequently, CAP has little margin to limit the kind of control narratives discussed here. Legal frameworks are straightforward when regulating elemental components of advertising e. Note 1. Conflict of Interest Authors A and B declare that they have no conflict of interest. Author C declares that he has received funding for a number of research projects in the area of gambling education for young people, social responsibility in gambling and gambling treatment from the Responsibility in Gambling Trust, a charitable body that funds its research programme based on donations from the gambling industry.
He also undertakes consultancy for various gaming companies in the area of social responsibility in gambling. He is currently investigating the structural and persuasive characteristics of mediated sport content and sports betting advertising and their influence on sports betting behaviour, with emphasis on a problem gambling perspective. She is also director of the MSc in general health psychology there. Her research interests are addictive behaviours, cognitive and emotional processes, and early maladaptive experiences.
Mark D. Griffiths is a chartered psychologist and professor of behavioural addiction at Nottingham Trent University, and director of the International Gaming Research Unit. He has spent 30 years in the field and is internationally known for his work on gambling, gaming and behavioural addictions.
Exploring the relationship between celebrity endorser effects and advertising effectiveness a quantitative synthesis of effect size. International Journal of Advertising, 27, — Binde, P. Kingma Ed. London: Routledge. Gambling advertising: A critical research review. London: Responsibility in Gambling Trust. Gambling in Sweden: The cultural and socio-political context.
Addiction, , — Boshoff, C. Service advertising. Journal of Service Research, 4, — Burger, J. The effects of desire for control in situations with chance-determined outcomes: Gambling behavior in lotto and bingo players. Journal of Research in Personality, 25, — Cassidy, R. Partial convergence. Social gaming and real-money gambling. Cassidy, A. Loussouarn Eds. Exploring the production and consumption of risk pp. New York, NY: Routledge. Charmaz, K. Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Guidance on the rules for gambling advertisements. London: Author. Crawford, G. Consuming sport: Fans, sport and culture. Davis, F. User perceptions of decision support effectiveness: Two production planning experiments. Decision Sciences, 25, 57— Deans, E. Creating symbolic cultures of consumption: An analysis of the content of sports wagering advertisements in Australia. BMC Public Health, 16 1 , The role of peer influences on the normalisation of sports wagering: A qualitative study of Australian men.
The influence of marketing on the sports betting attitudes and consumption behaviours of young men: Implications for harm reduction and prevention strategies. Harm Reduction Journal, 14 1 , 5. Erroneous gambling-related beliefs as illusions of primary and secondary control: A confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31, — European Commission. Gainsbury, S.
Betting patterns for sports and races: A longitudinal analysis of online wagering in Australia. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31, 17— Journal of Gambling Studies, 32, — Gordon, R. Broadening an understanding of problem gambling: The lifestyle consumption community of sports betting. Journal of Business Research, 68, — Griffiths, M. The role of cognitive bias and skill in fruit machine gambling. British Journal of Psychology, 85, — Does gambling advertising contribute to problem gambling?
Hanss, D. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29, — Heckhausen, J. A life-span theory of control. Psychological Review, , — Hill, William.
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