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Amy sangster forex charts

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amy sangster forex charts

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Other bureau names do not help: Beriev float planes became chief designer in , Ilyushin designed his first glider in the s, Mil choppers graduated in , etc. Yakovlev, op. Kaldor, op. In the period since the Second World W a r , the quantitative increase in armaments has been m u c h less significant than qualitative 'improvements' to individual weapon systems.

All delivery systems, ships, tanks and aircraft have become faster, with longer ranges and bigger payloads. Submarines have become quieter. Munitions have become m u c h more destructive through improvements in materials, shape of charges, etc.

There has been a revolution in elec- tronics, vastly improving capabilities for navi- gation, communication, detection and identifi- cation of targets, and for jamming and counter- jamming of enemy equip- ment. There are whole n e w families of missiles, ranging from the hand-held, wire-guided anti-tank missile to the intercontinental bal- listic missile I C B M carrying manoeuvrable or multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles.

More than half a million scientists are also believed to be working on the development of new weapons and defence systems—an immense investment of intellectual resources. It is not just that mili- tary spending is m u c h more science-intensive than other kinds of spending. Over the period since the Second World W a r , the import- ance of science and tech- nology to the military has greatly increased.

A s a share of procurement outlays in the United States, that is to say ex- penditure on military hardware, military re- search and development has increased from 5 per cent to a peak of 50 per cent. O r has the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union provided the justifi- cation for allocating ever greater scientific26 Mary Kaldor and technical resources to military develop- ments? T o some extent, both propositions are correct. Furthermore, a detailed examination of American technological de- velopments would show, I suggest, that the United States has nearly always taken the lead in developing n e w military technologies, even where there was no obvious requirement.

These are big companies dependent on military spending for their sur- vival. Five companies account for 20 per cent of the annual dollar volume of military prime contract awards—in these included G e n - eral Dynamics, McDonnell Douglas, United Technologies Corporation, General Electric C o. By and large, the companies receiving the largest amounts of procurement dollars are the same as those receiving the largest amounts of research- and-development dollars. The tendency for these big firms to 'buy in' production awards has been noted by Jacques Gansler.

Dependent on each of these big companies are not only thousands of employees but also hundreds of smaller companies—suppliers of parts, raw materials and components. Little Inc. Long and Judith Reppy eds. N e w York, Pergamon Press, T h e President of Newport N e w s , in jus- tifying financial claims on the government to a congressional committee, explained: What we have built at Newport News is a unique ship manufacturing complex—the only one in the United States that has the facilities, equip- ment and human resources to build, repair, overhaul and refuel the full range of Navy vessels and the only one now building nuclear-powered surface ships.

Newport News is truly a national asset. A n y autonomous input from the demand side, a response to Soviet armament for example, is necessarily constrained by these imperatives. The big prime contractors are both sovereign and dependent. They are sovereign in the sense they alone are responsible for their financial viability and that they are free to se- cure the necessary financial resources through obtaining contracts wherever possible.

They are dependent because the bulk of their contracts are obtained from the Department of Defense. A s w e shall see, there are other possible industrial organizations, those that are dependent but not sovereign, e. Because of their sovereignty, companies must obtain continuous contracts to ensure28 Mary Kaldor capacity employment.

This is particularly im- portant with respect to research and devel- opment. Production capacity, in practice, fluctuates enormously; indeed, sales and e m - ployment fluctuations tend to be greater in the defence sector than in other sectors. In a survey of the years —years of relative stability in defence spending compared with what came after—both sales and employment variability in the American aerospace indus- try, measured as a standard deviation from a linear trend, was markedly higher, both for the main firms and the industry as a whole, than for four other industries—chemicals, electrical equipment, steel and aluminium.

It was noted, moreover, that the United States Government 'regards excess capacity as favourable to contract awards'. O n average, they used 55 per cent of nominal one-shift capacity whereas it is normally considered good econ- omic practice to operate at between 85 and 95 per cent of capacity, on an approximate 1.

Research-and-devel- opment tends to utilize m u c h more special- ized equipment and more highly skilled workers than does production. Companies that depend on their technological capabili- ties in order to obtain contracts cannot afford to disband design teams, laboratories, etc. Hence the first imperative is capacity employment, especially for research-and-development capacity. The argument for military contracts in order to ensure capacity employment has been m a d e on m a n y occasions.

In the late s, for instance, when big companies that had special- ized in armaments during the war faced bank- ruptcy, it was argued by a Committee of the National Planning Association, which in- cluded representatives from industry and Government, that Unless a substantial volume of military pro- duction is maintained at this time, this country' runs the risk of doing irreparable damage to its aircraft manufacturing industry, which is not merely a collection of plants, machinery, raw materials, and designs, but which is, first of all, a living organization of skills—research, engin- eering, labour and management.

These skills inhere in particular individuals and companies. These opinions contributed in no small way to the American decision to create a seventy-squadron air force in The arguments surfaced again in the s after the recession which followed the Viet N a m W a r. It was of particular importance in justifying the big increase in arms exports. According to a Treasury Report which ac- companied President Carter's Report to the Congress on A r m s Transfer Policy: Production for exports helps to maintain a warm mobilization base by reducing the extent to which industrial capacity is idle or underutilized, and to keep total output potential above peacetime domestic requirements, thereby providing reserve capacity for emergency use.

Production for ex- ports makes it possible to avoid the dispersal of skilled and experienced labour teams, and by keeping some production lines active forestalls the necessity to incur large start-up costs and to expand production of specific items rapidly during an emergency. Electric Boat now owned by General Dynamics has a history of more or less continuous submarine building that goes back to the s when it was owned by Vickers and Newport N e w s has launched one aircraft carrier after another.

The follow-on system is often explained in bureaucratic terms. The mission of each military unit and the organization of officers and m e n is built around a particular weapon system. W h e n the weapon system comes to the end of its useful life, the military unit needs a successor to justify its continued existence.

While this explains the attachment to particular types of weapon systems and particular performance characteristics it does not explain the pace of technical advance, the length of the useful life, the emphasis on 'quality' rather than quantity. There are, after all, m a n y military m e n w h o favour numbers and simplicity and a slower rate of replace- ment. For the corporations, however, it is continuous development of weapon systems, rather than continuous use, on which their existence depends.

Hence, there are reasons for supposing that it is the corporations that have had a decisive influence on the pace of the follow-on system. A major study of the weapons acquisition process was undertaken at the Harvard Busi- ness School by J. Fox, based on his o w n personal experience at the Pentagon, and extensive interviews as well as documentary research. The central importance of continu- ous development and procurement contracts was confirmed by the study: W h e n the major share of a company's business is defense work, the drive for new contracts becomes compelling.

One reason is that technical and management personnel who have worked on defense programs are now geared for advanced technology and complex equipment. By the time a firm has developed the personnel, facilities and equipment to handle programs budgeted for hundreds of millions or billions of dollars, m a n Mary Kaldor agement must keep the company operating at or near full strength or risk serious losses. During our interviews with industry managers, this concern seemed to outweigh all others.

A s development ends on one weapon system development begins on another, and as production ends on one system it begins on another. It seems unlikely that the cor- porations adapt their development and pro- duction schedules to meet military require- ments since this would imply considerable flexibility and a foreknowledge, over five to ten years of military plans. Rather, it seems, at least for aircraft, that the development cycle is paramount. For any particular cor- poration, given the equipment and core en- gineers, there tends to be an opt imum period in which an aircraft can be developed.

This can be defined as the shortest possible time before administrative inefficiencies from too m a n y people set in. Production schedules are m u c h more flexible. T h e production of air- craft requires little more than floor-space, which can easily be adapted for other uses, and unskilled workers w h o can be hired and fired with surprising ease.

This is not true of the production of naval vessels. Shipworkers are highly skilled and cannot easily be laid off on a temporary basis and production facilities are fixed. T o ensure continuous work, all the de- fence companies have planning groups, whose sole function is to choose suitable successors for the weapons that are currently being produced and w h o work closely with similar groups in the services.

T h e planning group is supposed to predict what a particular branch of the armed forces might require when cur- rent projects c o m e to. Because of the relationship with the armed forces, particularly during the concept definition phase, the prediction tends to be- c o m e a self-fulfilling prophecy. Fox , in his study, concluded: Our discussions with Defense Department and industry personnel, and a review of the case histories of ten current defense programs, re- vealed that defense contractors are profoundly influential in the origination and development of new program ideas.

Private firms often assist Government staffs in writing the Requests for Proposals that are eventually issued to potential contractors. Industry officials research areas to which their particular companies' skills might be applied and identify key Government offices that will welcome their proposals. They also attempt to find out what funds are actually or potentially available for particular programs. A c - cording to the industry executives we interviewed, intelligence information concerning defense fund- ing is a major factor in the preparation of cost estimates submitted to the Defense Department.

If it did, the efforts would be unnecessary. Indeed, inter- ruptions are a paradoxical consequence of the workings of the system. The struggle for continuous employment of industrial capacity also entails the tendency for capacity expan- sion. There is intense competition between the major contractors to obtain future con- tracts. This competition takes a technological rather than a price form. Because the govern- ment is the only customer, any attempt to reduce the price of military equipment would reduce the total size of the market.

Further, once a particular contract is awarded, the government has very little choice but to go ahead with development or production re- gardless of cost. Instead, the companies compete in offering technological 'improve- ments' that will appeal to their customers, the armed forces—more speed, more pro- tection, better target acquisition, etc.

A n d each 'improvement' tends to need more people and equipment to put it into practice. T e a m s of engineers expand and additional layers of management are inserted. Each en- gineer pushes his o w n idea, each manager competes to attract more funds for his o w n section. T h e consequence is that each weapon system tends to become more and more elab- orate and more and more expensive than its predecessors.

Moreover, this tendency is accelerating. According to Senator Stennis of the Senate A r m e d Services Committee: The purchase cost of modern weapon systems has increased by many times even within the last few years. It was to be expected that a new fighter aircraft for the mids would cost consider- ably more than the fighters of World W a r II vintage. It is striking, however, that fighter air- craft n o w being developed for procurement in the mids will cost five or six times more than comparable aircraft at the beginning of the s.

The cost of tanks is increasing over fourfold during the decade. The avionics package in some types of new military aircraft will alone weigh two or more tons and cost several hundred million dollars. With ups and downs , American mili- tary spending has been more or less stable in real ternis since the end of the Korean war.

T h e consequence is a sharp reduction in the n u m b e r and variety of weapon systems. A c - cording to one well-known estimate, if current trends continue, the air force will only be able to afford one plane by the year Peak capacity grows and so does excess ca Mary Kaldor pacity.

Each prime contractor n o w has one or two prime contracts where formerly it might have had four or five. Douglas and Lockheed no longer m a k e bombers. G r u m - m a n and Convair no longer m a k e military transports. All the primes under- take m u c h more subcontract work than in the past.

Hence, the competition for any one prime contract is all the more intense. The role of industry in determining the shape of armaments is also apparent in the effects of the changing composition of the industry. Throughout the s, the air force dominated military production. A s technical advance proceeded, the electronics industry played an increasingly important role, but nearly always as a subcontractor to the air- craft industry. W h e n missiles were introduced, the aircraft companies became the prime con- tractors for all except the smallest missiles, despite the fact that the electronic equipment accounted for two-thirds the value of a miss- ile.

Likewise, the air force established he- gemony over land-based missiles despite the m o o t question as to whether they should be treated as bombers or artillery. The issues were vividly illustrated in the Thor-Jupiter missile controversy. Both were intermediate- range ballistic missiles. The Jupiter missile was designed at the army's Redstone Arsenal, under the leadership of the G e r m a n wartime scientist D r Werner von Braun, and was to be produced by Chrysler in government-owned facilities.

The Thor missile was one of a series of airforce missiles whose complexes included 18, scientists and tech- nicians in universities and industry, 70, others in 22 industries including 17 prime contractors ' and over subcontractors as well as innumer- able smaller suppliers. This broad industrial base constituted a significant political asset to the Air Force. During this period, the unit cost of air- craft rose m u c h faster than the unit costs of ground vehicles and ships.

Further, the large cost overruns, i. The study found that cost estimates for equipment resembling c o m - mercial equipment i. A s a consequence ships and tanks were infected by cost and complexity. For example, the M B T - 7 0 , which was designed and developed by General Motors represented a total contrast with previous tank designs. Since the Second World W a r , unit costs for tanks had risen by 4 per cent a year, compared with an average of 20 per cent for other types of weapon sys- tems.

Costs soared and it was finally cancelled by Congress in because it was too expensive and had too m a n y extravagant features. Chrysler was selected as prime contractor, in competition first with the Federal Republic of Germany and then with General Motors. Chrysler offered greater 'commonality' with the G e r m a n Leopard tank. R e m o v e d from immediate battlefield experi- ence, the armed forces tend to emphasize the performance characteristics that were im- portant in the past and these, in turn, accord with the capabilities of the manufacturers.

According to Gansler: These large firms emphasize risk minimization and thus tend not to push new ideas or appli- cations. Research is more likely to be done on increasing the performance of a device, rather than developing some totally new device. More far-reaching questions would pose a threat to existing organizations—an airplane manufacturer would not want the usefulness of airplanes questioned, nor would a military pilot. Each additional 'improvement' becomes harder and therefore costlier to achieve.

Not all the 'improvements' are con- sidered worth the cost. For example, Richard Garwin has criticized the decision to use a nuclear power-plant in the Trident submarine in order to increase its speed. The purpose of the high speed is not to provide security for the Trident on station, but to shorten the transit time from h o m e port to the patrol area. This time however is already much shorter for a vessel equipped with Trident 1 missiles of 4,mile-range than with Poseidon missiles of 2,miIe-range.

A dollar spent unnecessarily is a dollar of military capability denied us. Worse, the rationalization and arguments which support the unnecessary expenditure can contaminate the national security discourse for years. In general, they result in bigger and more complex systems. Size means greater vulnerability. Complexity tends to reduce re- liability, to m a k e systems more difficult to operate, and to increase logistical problems.

Finally, overemphasis on 'improvements' in hardware, as Garwin points out, m a y lead to neglect of other elements of capa- bility—quantity, doctrine, personnel train- ing, etc. Elsewhere, I have described this form of conservative but dynamic technical change which leads to increasing cost and c o m - plexity for diminishing improvements in per- formance as 'baroque'. There is the conservative approach that typically emerges from an ar- senal system—this applied to American tanks and ships during the s.

A n d there are revolutionary approaches that seem to emerge both from non-profit institutions and from Kossiakoff's category 'private industry'. Small missiles for use against aircraft, ships and tanks or Remotely Piloted Vehicles R P V s fit this approach, for example. In general, the existence of the traditional prime contractors in alliance with branches of the armed forces has inhibited their adoption, however. H o w far these different approaches can be found in other countries is the subject of the next two sections.

But because of the lack of information, all are based o n arbitrary assumptions. Research institutes, design bureaux and production plants are organized as sep- arate entities. T h e research institutes are attached to the central ministry. Thus for 'low technology' areas, e. In aviation, the design bureaux are relatively independent. A n d in the Ministry of General Machine Building, which makes ballistic missiles, the design bureaux are apparently attached to the re- search institute.

It is likely that, as in the West, strong informal links exist between these supply organizations and the technical administrations of the armed forces, which specify military requirements. The continuity of individual institutions is guaranteed by the system of planning and budgeting. In contrast to the sovereign enter- prises of the West, the various industrial organizations are assured of a steady flow of work.

Their future does not depend to the same extent on the ability to obtain n e w contracts. Successful designs lead to production con- tracts, follow-on assignments, more m a n - power, as well as prestige, state prizes and substantial monetary rewards, which are dis- tributed a m o n g the members of the design bureau. The heads of design bureaux are chief designers, like Mikoyan, Yakovlev or T u p o - lev, w h o can achieve great fame.

The personal status of the chief designer m a y often deter- mine the future of the design bureau. Never- theless, the degree to which design bureaux might be tempted to propose a radical inno- vation in order to win a design competition is severely constrained by, on the one hand a doctrinal emphasis on simplicity, and evol- utionary technical change and, on the other hand, the imperatives of production which such doctrinal precepts largely reflect.

They do not need to compete for production contracts because excess capacity, if it exists, is a deliberate or mistaken consequence of planning. All the defence enterprises have substantial civilian production, as a matter of conscious policy. Leonid Brezhnev, in an often-quoted state- ment, said that 42 per cent of the output of defence enterprises is intended for civilian purposes. Civilian production serves as a buffer between defence contracts and in- creases the flexibility of production, the ease of convertibility from peace to war and vice versa.

Like all enterprises in the Soviet Union, production plants tend to resist complexity as well as design changes because they disrupt production and interfere with the quantitative fulfilment of the plan indicator.

There is some evidence that low prices for defence products also encourage an emphasis on long series production. Because of the un- reliability of the planning process, there is a tendency to keep as m u c h of the m a n u - facturing process as possible within the min- istry in order to avoid supply bottlenecks. Most ministries are said to have their o w n metallurgical bases and machine-tool m a n u - facturing facilities. The Electronics Ministry has to produce m a n y materials and c o m p o - nents, e.

The consequence is continuity, not just of prime contractors, but of subcontractors as well. Decontamination after an attack by Sanitoxin B. T o some extent, these are the charac- teristics of Soviet military technical change. Soviet technology has been characterized as 'conservative'31 both with respect to per- formance characteristics, as in the United States, and also in respect of hardware. W h a t seemed important then—the combined arms offensive, numbers, artillery, etc.

Moreover weapons tech- nology does seem to be becoming more ex- pensive and elaborate, albeit at a slower rate than in the United States. H o w is this to be explained? O n the military side, the techni- cal administrations work very closely with the commands and staffs of their own branch or arm of service, whose plans and activities are in turn co-ordinated and directed by the General Staff.

In other words, co-operation between customer and supplier is organized on the basis of decisions taken at the top and transmitted down through the military and industrial hierarchies. T h e military sector could be seen as perhaps the most important of the pressure groups. So-called defence alumni are powerfully rep- resented on economic and political decision- making bodies. Both Ustinov, the Defence Minister, and Brezhnev gained their formative experience in the defence-industrial sector.

Military representation on state and party organs is relatively high, though not at the topmost levels. Military spokesmen have always been the most consistent advocates for traditional heavy industry, which is regarded as the 'foundation of the entire economy [and] the basis of the military power of the state'. N o r does it account for fun- damental requirements of the system. F r o m time to time, the Soviet regime does need to carry out certain functions and, in order to overcome the 'routine and inertia' of the sys- tem, the political leadership imposes a kind of 'shock treatment'.

This was evident in the Stalin years and, to a lesser extent, under Khrushchev. The military sector has, perhaps, been the most important beneficiary of this kind of shock treatment. A n d this is presum- ably the consequence of the military require- ments of the Soviet system. By all accounts, the defence sector is a privileged sector in the Soviet Union. It re- ceives the best machinery and parts, it can commandeer scarce materials and parts, de- fence employees earn higher incomes and obtain better non-monetary benefits like hous- ing or medical care, requests and orders from the administration tend to be dealt with more quickly.

Likewise, m a n y commentators have remarked on the unusual degree of consumer sovereignty in the defence sector—the ability of the consumer to insure that specifications are met and to overcome resistance to demand- induced changes. Military representatives, k n o w n as voyenpreds, are located at pro- duction plants to prevent bottlenecks, police pricing and ensure quality standards. Finally, the need for shock treatment to overcome the inertia of the system has been explicitly rec- ognized in the defence sector.

Antonov, the famous designer of transport aircraft, asks: Have you not noticed that the Party has several times rolled up its sleeves, gone after one industry or another, and, dragging it out of the morass of gradualism, given it a powerful push in the di- rection the country required? However, the institutional inertia of the military sector, the conservatism of the industrial organiz- ations shapes the nature of the response to the United States and precludes any alterna- tive more innovative, perhaps less military response.

T h e failure. France and the United Kingdom are easily the largest spenders, followed by Sweden and then the Federal Republic of Germany. Rounded to the nearest Camera Press. The latter is con- cerned with eradicating poverty at all levels of Third World societies and with providing for the basic h u m a n needs food, shelter, clean water, health care, education for all members of society. That it is not an auto- matic outcome of economic growth is evident when one looks at countries which have achieved high rates of growth of national product.

The disparity between Brazil's high rate of growth in the late s and early i s and its increasingly skewed income distri- bution was discussed above. Real economic growth rates in Pakistan averaged 7 per cent per a n n u m in the s, and Pakistan was considered a great development 'success story'.

Just h o w limited this 'success' was, however, is indicated by the fact that in the twenty-two wealthiest families in Pakistan controlled 66 per cent of the industrial assets, 70 per cent of the insurance funds, and 80 per cent of all bank assets. This means that when you become part of IP, you will have the opportunity to connect to the other members and discuss any issues that you run into.

To be fair, even when you do not join the platform, you will get a chance to learn about Forex trading if you are a complete beginner. Infinite Prosperity has an introductory course composed of 18 topics about Forex trading. I am impressed by much effort the company has put into the lessons. Each of the 18 topics is discussed in a short but detailed manner that anyone can easily digest.

You have to provide your email or Facebook account to access the lessons; which I already did for you in here. However, the website also has these buttons which promise to give you free video tutorials if you provide your email. Unfortunately, they do not work! I cannot say for sure if the website is merely having some technical issues during that time, or this is just a strategy to build their email list. For example, you will not find a section where you will be able to see how much the course is.

To do that, I have to complete some sort of signup form and provide my email address. Which is weird considering these people should be online all the time because Forex trading and it is unlikely that none of them are into social media. Or maybe they just want their privacy. Yes, Forex trading is not simple, and you must learn a lot of things to make it work for you.

However, there are tons of other high-quality online trading courses that you can get for a fraction of that price. Even the upsells are very expensive and forgive my language but the price for IP is a little greedy. What particular worries me is that these two are unheard of in the Forex industry until Infinite Prosperity.

What are their credentials? Infinite Prosperity has been around for more than six years, and they do not or cannot have any form of proof on its website that their courses actually works and help students. I am not talking about the hypes and testimonies. You can find a lot of those in the Infinite Prosperity website.

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